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What is asian handicap betting?

The favourites have to win by at least 1-0 to win the bet, while bets on the underdog win with any other result.

The favourite has to overcome the indicated handicap, and will have it taken away from its final score. Asian Line Betting commonly known as Asian Handicap is very popular with the European punters.

The greater the difference in ability between the teams involved in the match, the more goals you would expect the favourite to win by and the bigger the handicap will be. You have a 50% better chance of winning than with traditional odds

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4. You must either select the favoured team to overcome a ทางเข้า m88 handicap (framed in goals) or oppose the favourite with the handicap.

Asian Handicap originated in Asia and today is taking Europe by storm. The best way to understand this type of handicap is to imagine you have two separate bets with your stake being split equally between the two handicaps (0 and 0.5 in this case)

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In a more even match than in the example above, we may want to use a handicap in between half balls (such as a 0.5 ball), and so a handicap of 0,+0.5 can be used. The underdogs will therefore be given a head start, a handicap, (of 0.5, 1 ball, etc.) by the favourite.

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13. Introduction.

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6

College football

Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “100 years ago: Football fans enjoy mechanized reproduction of KU-MU game”. Retrieved 2007-05-19.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 20

^ “WorldCat entry for Football for Coaches and Players”. Associated Press. The highest seed receives automatic home field advantage. “Old Division Football, The Indigenous Mob Soccer Of Dartmouth College (pdf)” (PDF). Retrieved 2008-01-16.

^ A compilation of seven sources:

“History.” 2009 Baylor Football Media Almanac. “The Evolution of School Spirit and Tradition at Oregon State University” (PDF). Smith. The next year in 1901, Yost was hired by Charles A. The IAAUS was the original rule making body of college football, but would go on to sponsor championships in other sports. The new NCAA rule applies to penalties on both sides of the ball.

Players lined up outside the tackle box–more specifically, those lined up more than 7 yards from the center–will now be allowed to block below the waist only if they are blocking straight ahead or toward the nearest sideline.

On placekicks, no offensive lineman can now be engaged by more than two defensive players. Retrieved May 6, 2014.

^ “Seventy-four to nothing”. The first western team to travel east was the 1881 Michigan team, which played at Harvard, Yale and Princeton.[32][33] The nation’s first college football league, the Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives (also known as the Western Conference), a precursor to the Big Ten Conference, was founded in 1895.[34]

Field hockey

Championship

Heisman shift

Gymnastics

Men

Women

Men-DII

Women-DII

Further notes

“The Invention Of Football”. Retrieved 13 October 2011.

^ “Tarheels Credited With Throwing First Forward Pass”. “N.C.A.A. Without the Pac-10/Big Ten team bound to a bowl game, it would be difficult to decide which two teams should play for the national title.

Ice hockey

Men

Women

The following was taken from the Silver & Gold newspaper of December 16, 1898. Reading Eagle. (1916-10-15). “Too many bowl games? Nonsense”. Retrieved April 4, 2011.

^ DeLassus, David. p. 4.

^ “Stanford’s Football Coach Has Arrived”. What is absolutely certain is that on October 9, 1905, Roosevelt held a meeting of football representatives from Harvard, Yale, and Princeton. The Rose Bowl included Roy Riegels’ wrong-way run. It was agreed that two games would be played on Harvard’s Jarvis baseball field in Cambridge, Massachusetts on May 14 and 15, 1874: one to be played under Harvard rules, another under the stricter rugby regulations of McGill. As most of these players had eligibility left on their college careers, some of them returned to college at West Point, bringing Army back-to-back national titles in 1944 and 1945 under coach Red Blaik. He also lacked the authority to abolish football and was, in fact, actually a fan of the sport and wanted to preserve it. Retrieved 2007-06-01.

^ a b c “BCS Chronology”. The Kingsport Times. Retrieved March 13, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. College football quickly became the most popular spectator sport in the South.[127]

East

University of Wisconsin football team, 1903

Although rules for the high school, college, and NFL games are generally consistent, there are several minor differences. Notre Dame, one of the biggest passing teams of the decade, saw a substantial decline in success; the 1950s were the only decade between 1920 and 1990 when the team did not win at least a share of the national title. Because the college officials could not agree upon a change in rules, it was decided over the course of several subsequent meetings that an external governing body should be responsible. Retrieved 2007-08-23.

^ “Knute Rockne”. The CFP is a Plus-One system, a concept that became popular as a BCS alternative following controversies in 2003 and 2004. Handbook of Southern Intercollegiate Track and Field Athletics. Stone. On November 13, 1875, Yale and Harvard played each other for the first time ever, where Harvard won 4-0. In the NFL, only scoring plays, turnovers, the final 2:00 of each half and all overtime periods are reviewed, and coaches are issued two challenges (with the option for a 3rd if the first two are successful).

Starting in the 2012 season, the ball is placed on the 25-yard line following a touchback on a kickoff. As a result of this meeting, the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States was formed in 1906. “Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association Foot Ball”. This game is commonly referred to as “the game that changed the south.”[120] Wade followed up the next season with an undefeated record and Rose Bowl tie. It is still usually regarded as the first game of college football.[3][6][7][8] The game was played at a Rutgers field. The History of Sports. On October 20, 1873, representatives from Yale, Columbia, Princeton, and Rutgers met at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City to codify the first set of intercollegiate football rules. Retrieved 2007-05-19.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 18

^ John S. A Harvard tradition known as “Bloody Monday” began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes. A player could carry the ball only when being pursued.

Track and Field

Men’s indoor and outdoor

Women’s indoor and outdoor

Bowl Championship Series

Main article: Bowl Championship Series

See also: NCAA Division I Football Championship

Sewanee’s 1899 “Iron Men.”

On 25 December 1894, Amos Alonzo Stagg’s Chicago Maroons agreed to play Camp’s Stanford football team in San Francisco in the first postseason intersectional contest, foreshadowing the modern bowl game.[66][67] Future president Herbert Hoover was Stanford’s student financial manager.[68] Chicago won 24 to 4.[69] Stanford won a rematch in Los Angeles on December 29 by 12 to 0.[70]

Playoff games

In 1906 Vanderbilt defeated Carlisle 4 to 0, the result of a Bob Blake field goal.[115][116] In 1907 Vanderbilt fought Navy to a 6 to 6 tie. Bradbury Robinson, playing for visionary coach Eddie Cochems at Saint Louis University, threw the first legal pass in a September 5, 1906, game against Carroll College at Waukesha. Journals.humankinetics.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu. Rather than increase scoring, which had been Camp’s original intent, the rule was exploited to maintain control of the ball for the entire game, resulting in slow, unexciting contests. 16: 583. Retrieved March 24, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. Retrieved 2007-05-16.

^ “Notre Dame Football :: UND.COM :: The Official Site of Notre Dame Athletics”. “College Football in Kansas”. The annual Big Game between Stanford and California continued as rugby, with the winner invited by the British Columbia Rugby Union to a tournament in Vancouver over the Christmas holidays, with the winner of that tournament receiving the Cooper Keith Trophy.[87][88][89]

Tennis

Men

Women

1904 Vanderbilt team in action.

2 Official rules and notable rule distinctions

3 Organization

4 Coaching

5 National championships

6 Team maps

7 Playoff games

8 Bowl games

8.1 Division I FBS National Championship Games

1902 football game between the University of Minnesota and the University of Michigan

Institutions

Athletic directors

Baseball

Championship

CWS

The Big Game between Stanford and California was played as rugby union from 1906 to 1914.

In 1864, at Trinity College, also a college of the University of Toronto, F. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was once again played at Harvard. If the kick was missed, the try did not score any points itself.

Brown enters the intercollegiate game in 1878.[25]

Softball

Championship/WCWS

Modern college football (since 1958)

References

1906 St. Barlow Cumberland and Frederick A. The undefeated 1904 Vanderbilt team scored an average of 52.7 points per game, the most in college football that season, and allowed just four points.

The 1894 Harvard-Yale game, known as the “Hampden Park Blood Bath”, resulted in crippling injuries for four players; the contest was suspended until 1897. Known as the “Iron Men”, with just 13 men they had a six-day road trip with five shutout wins over Texas A&M; Texas; Tulane; LSU; and Ole Miss. Harvard, however, preferred to play a rougher version of football called “the Boston Game” in which the kicking of a round ball was the most prominent feature though a player could run with the ball, pass it, or dribble it (known as “babying”). Retrieved April 12, 2011.

^ “Timeline of Yale Football”. College Football Data Warehouse. Retrieved 2010-01-26.

^ Meacham, Scott (2006). Honus Craig then ran in the winning touchdown.

The first bowl game was the 1902 Rose Bowl, played between Michigan and Stanford; Michigan won 49-0. The notorious V was then in vogue, which gave a heavy team too much advantage. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Starting in 2013, non-seeded teams can only host a playoff game if both teams involved are unseeded; in such a matchup, the schools must bid for the right to host the game. As reasons for the change, the school cited rule change back to American football, the overwhelming desire of students and supporters to play American football, interest in playing other East Coast and Midwest schools, and a patriotic desire to play an “American” game.[87] California’s return to American football increased the pressure on Stanford to also change back in order to maintain the rivalry. The two teams agreed to play under a set of rules called the “Concessionary Rules”, which involved Harvard conceding something to Yale’s soccer and Yale conceding a great deal to Harvard’s rugby. 40: 717-724. Division III institutions also field teams, but do not offer any scholarships.

Unlike other college football divisions and most other sports–collegiate or professional–the Football Bowl Subdivision, formerly known as Division I-A college football, has historically not employed a playoff system to determine a champion. 2007-02-14. p. 70.

^ Gary Migdol. One conference champion from this group receives a spot in a New Year’s Six game. It ended when Stanford requested and Michigan agreed to end it with 8 minutes on the clock. Tennessee Historical Society. The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. Journal of Sport History, Vol. Athens, Georgia: E. 17 (1).

^ Ratcliffe, Jerry (2008). As part of his single and double wing formations, Warner was one of the first coaches to effectively utilize the forward pass. It was the first game in the south decided by a field goal.[49] Heisman later used the trick against Pop Warner’s Georgia team. National Collegiate Athletic Association: 71-75.

^ Davis, Parke H. When Heisman left Tech after 1919, his shift was still employed by protege William Alexander.

Map of Division I (A) FBS

1.7 From a regional to a national sport (1930-1958)

1.8 Modern college football (since 1958)

1.8.1 Growth of bowl games

1.8.2 Bowl Championship Series

1.8.3 College Football Playoff

Rugby Football in England and Canada

Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Virginia and the south on November 2, 1873 in Lexington between Washington and Lee and VMI. Lawrence Daily Journal. On June 4, 1875, Harvard faced Tufts University in the first game between two American colleges played under rules similar to the McGill/Harvard contest, which was won by Tufts.[14] The rules included each side fielding 11 men at any given time, the ball was advanced by kicking or carrying it, and tackles of the ball carrier stopped play.[15]

Volleyball

Men

Women

Coaches of the era

Glenn “Pop” Warner

The situation came to a head in 1905 when there were 19 fatalities nationwide. September 14, 1923.

^ cf. Due to scantness of records of the prior matches some will claim Virginia v. Archived from the original on April 30, 2007. The only way to score was still to bat or kick the ball through the opposing team’s goal, and the game was played in two 45 minute halves on fields 140 yards long and 70 yards wide. FOX Sports on MSN. 16 Stanford”. WorldCat.org. This opened up the BCS to two additional at-large teams. reprinted from Official Super Bowl XXXIII Game Program.

^ Vancil (2000) pp 46-48

^ Vancil (2000), pp 56

^ Bennett (1976), Appendix pp 209-217

^ a b Call, Jeff (December 20, 2006). 2012-05-14. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

Professional Football Researchers Association. (1969). Retrieved 2009-10-11.

The National Collegiate Athletic Association. There has been serious discussion about making student-athletes university employees to allow them to be paid.[159][160][161][162]

v

t

e

In 1909, the Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference was founded, featuring four members: Colorado, Colorado College, Colorado School of Mines, and Colorado Agricultural College. The Oklahoma Football Encyclopedia: 2nd Edition. On May 30, 1879 Michigan beat Racine College 1-0 in a game played in Chicago. In the rankings of the most victorious programs, Michigan, Texas, and Notre Dame are ranked first, second, and third in total wins.

The establishment of the CFP followed a tumultuous period of conference realignment in Division I. Dartmouth played its own version called “Old division football”, the rules of which were first published in 1871, though the game dates to at least the 1830s. Washington and Lee won 4-2.[38] Some industrious students of the two schools organized a game for October 23, 1869 – but it was rained out.[39] Students of the University of Virginia were playing pickup games of the kicking-style of football as early as 1870, and some accounts even claim it organized a game against Washington and Lee College in 1871; but no record has been found of the score of this contest. p. 21. By next season, Oklahoma coach John A. “Why California Likes Rugby”. In addition, if the defensive team gains possession, but then moves backwards into the end zone and is stopped, a one-point safety will be awarded to the offense, although, unlike a real safety, the offense kicks off, opposed to the team charged with the safety. Church took over the coaching position in the fall for the rest of the season. It was during Rockne’s tenure that the annual Notre Dame-University of Southern California rivalry began. The game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges.

Camp’s new scrimmage rules revolutionized the game, though not always as intended. The University of Alabama. Baird as the head football coach for the Michigan Wolverines football team. First, Vanderbilt; second, Sewanee, a might good second;” and that Aubrey Lanier “came near winning the Vanderbilt game by his brilliant dashes after receiving punts.”[113]Bob Blake threw the final pass to center Stein Stone, catching it near the goal amongst defenders. open access publication - free to read

^ “Mansfield, Pennsylvania – It happened one night – First Football under lights – Mansfield PA 1892″. Notre Dame remains a football independent, but is counted among the Power Five because of its full but non-football ACC membership, including a football scheduling alliance with that conference. Retrieved 2007-05-15.

^ “1800s”. “Gridiron gridlock: Citing research, Tufts claims football history is on its side”. It is in college football where a player’s performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. In 1934, the rules committee removed two major penalties–a loss of five yards for a second incomplete pass in any series of downs and a loss of possession for an incomplete pass in the end zone–and shrunk the circumference of the ball, making it easier to grip and throw. Division I generally consists of the major collegiate athletic powers with larger budgets, more elaborate facilities, and (with the exception of a few conferences such as the Pioneer Football League) more athletic scholarships. The team also played exhibition games against two Los Angeles area teams that Stanford does not include in official results.[64][65] Camp returned to the East Coast following the season, then returned to coach Stanford in 1894 and 1895.

Helping Georgia Tech’s claim to a title in 1917, the Auburn Tigers held undefeated, Chic Harley-led Big Ten champion Ohio State to a scoreless tie the week before Georgia Tech beat the Tigers 68 to 7. Retrieved 2007-05-31.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 39

^ Vancil (2000), pp 41-45

^ MacCambridge (1999) pp 172

^ MacCambridge (1999), pp 171

^ Bennett (1976) pp 56

^ Barnidge, Tom (2000). One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was (Sir) William Mulock, later Chancellor of the school. Teams had been scaled down from 25 players to 20. It was a recollection of the birth of Colorado football written by one of CU’s original gridders, John C. San Francisco Chronicle.

Football

Championship

Skiing

Championships

On November 13, 1887 the Virginia Cavaliers and Pantops Academy fought to a scoreless tie in the first organized football game in the state of Virginia.[42] Students at UVA were playing pickup games of the kicking-style of football as early as 1870, and some accounts even claim that some industrious ones organized a game against Washington and Lee College in 1871, just two years after Rutgers and Princeton’s historic first game in 1869. p. 186. Later in 1870, Princeton and Rutgers played again with Princeton defeating Rutgers 6-0. December 18, 1930. Ralph Turtinen, ed. At the first The Game (as the annual contest between Harvard and Yale came to be named) the future “father of American football” Walter Camp was among the 2000 spectators in attendance. 2006. He was so famous at that point that his funeral was broadcast nationally on radio.[121][126]

Swimming & Diving

Men

Women

Awards

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about gridiron football played at a collegiate level in the United States. The best collegiate players will typically declare for the professional draft after 3 to 4 years of collegiate competition, with the NFL holding its annual draft every spring. Kicked tries count as one point. Nixon (1898-12-16). “Michigan-Chicago 1905: The First Greatest Game of the Century” (PDF). The team leading after both possessions is declared the winner. Colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition, housing, and books.[2]

A college football game between Colorado State and Air Force

After the Bowl Championship Series, additional all-star bowl games round out the post-season schedule through the beginning of February.

National Collegiate Athletic Association

Camp was central to several more significant rule changes that came to define American football. Retrieved 2007-06-01.

^ “Kickoffs from 30 yard line could create more returns, injuries”. Warner picked up the trick and later used it at Cornell against Penn State in 1897.[50] He then used it in 1903 at Carlisle against Harvard and garnered national attention.

From a regional to a national sport (1930-1958)

Events listed in italics have been discontinued.

Several organizations operate college football programs outside the jurisdiction of the NCAA:

The 10 FBS conferences are formally and popularly divided into two groups:

This system has been challenged often, beginning with an NCAA committee proposal in 1979 to have a four-team playoff following the bowl games.[153] However, little headway was made in instituting a playoff tournament until 2014, given the entrenched vested economic interests in the various bowls. Retrieved 2007-03-21. In the NFL both feet must be inbounds.

A player is considered down when any part of his body other than the feet or hands touches the ground or when the ball carrier is tackled or otherwise falls and loses possession of the ball as he contacts the ground with any part of his body, with the sole exception of the holder for field goal and extra point attempts. For its first thirty years, the RMAC was considered a major conference equivalent to today’s Division I, before 7 larger members left and formed the Mountain States Conference (also called the Skyline Conference).

Violence, formation of NCAA

In 1906, citing concerns about the violence in American Football, universities on the West Coast, led by California and Stanford, replaced the sport with rugby union.[87] At the time, the future of American football was very much in doubt and these schools believed that rugby union would eventually be adopted nationwide.[87] Other schools fllowed suit and also made the switch included Nevada, St. Navy won 24-0.

and championships

Basketball

Men

Women

College teams mostly play other similarly sized schools through the NCAA’s divisional system. The following season saw Vanderbilt execute a double pass play to set up the touchdown that beat Sewanee in a meeting of unbeatens for the SIAA championship. Associated Press. March 29, 1916 – via Google books. Retrieved December 27, 2011.

^ Sciullo Jr, Sam, ed. December 27, 1892. This is where the name came into use, as it became known as the Rose Bowl Game. The two-point conversion was not implemented in the NFL until 1994, but it had been previously used in the old American Football League (AFL) before it merged with the NFL in 1970.

The defensive team may score two points on a point-after touchdown attempt by returning a blocked kick, fumble, or interception into the opposition’s end zone. PMID 4903389.

^ Watterson, John (2001). During that game, a large group of men and boys, who were observing from the roof of the nearby S.F. For the video game series, see NCAA Football series. Retrieved 2007-06-04.

^ “President Eliot on Football.” The School Journal, Volume 70, United Education Company, New York, Chicago, and Boston, February 18, 1905, p.188.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 16-18

^ Bennett (1976), pp 20

^ Lewis, Guy M. May 8, 1900. William Dudley, a chemistry professor at Vanderbilt.[45] The original members were Alabama, Auburn, Georgia, Georgia Tech, North Carolina, Sewanee, and Vanderbilt. Retrieved March 27, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. Royal went on to teach the offense to other coaches, including Bear Bryant at Alabama, Chuck Fairbanks at Oklahoma and Pepper Rodgers at UCLA; who all adapted and developed it to their own tastes.[142] The strategic opposite of the wishbone is the spread offense, developed by professional and college coaches throughout the 1960s and 1970s. Pomona College was invited to enter, but declined to do so. This allows them to seat more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium, which tends to have more features and comforts for fans. The Panthers, led by freshman Tom Davies, defeated Georgia Tech 32 to 0. The WAC, after seeing all but two of its football members leave, dropped football after the 2012 season. College Football Data Warehouse. The try would later evolve into the score known as the touchdown. Watterson, “Inventing Modern Football”, American Heritage magazine, June 1988

^ Vancil (2000), pp 17

^ Vancil (2000) pp 22

^ “NFL History 1911-1920″. Before they were nicknamed the “Trojans”, they were known as the USC Methodists.

On October 18, 1888, the Wake Forest Demon Deacons defeated the North Carolina Tar Heels 6 to 4 in the first intercollegiate game in the state of North Carolina.[43]

Lacrosse

Men

Women

Wrestling

Championship

Don Hutson in 1940.

Walter Camp is widely considered to be the most important figure in the development of American football.[6][7][16] As a youth, he excelled in sports like track, baseball, and association football, and after enrolling at Yale in 1876, he earned varsity honors in every sport the school offered.[16]

Division I FBS National Championship Games

Main articles: Bowl Championship Series and College Football Playoff

The BCS ended after the 2013 season and, since the 2014 season, the FBS national champion has been determined by a four-team tournament known as the College Football Playoff (CFP). “Changing seasons: Y. CUBuffs.com reprint of Silver & Gold article. “Princeton Yearly Results (1880-1884)”. Rockne is also credited with popularizing and perfecting the forward pass, a seldom used play at the time.[125] The 1924 team featured the Four Horsemen backfield. Amos Alonzo Stagg introduced such innovations as the huddle, the tackling dummy, and the pre-snap shift.[102] Other coaches, such as Pop Warner and Knute Rockne, introduced new strategies that still remain part of the game.

Boxing

Championship

Harvard quickly took a liking to the rugby game, and its use of the try which, until that time, was not used in American football. p. 15.

^ “Stanford Defeats Stagg’s Eleven”. 201-209.

^ “Intercollegiate Football: The U.S.C. August 17, 1999.

^ Alexander M. Wallace William Wade’s 1925 Alabama team won the 1926 Rose Bowl after receiving its first national title and William Alexander’s 1928 Georgia Tech team defeated California in the 1929 Rose Bowl. The wishbone is a run-heavy offense that depends on the quarterback making last second decisions on when and to whom to hand or pitch the ball to. Passing numbers dropped from an average of 18.9 attempts in 1951 to 13.6 attempts in 1955, while teams averaged just shy of 50 running plays per game. (2007). p. 12.

^ a b Ray Soldan (September 11, 1994). Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “History of the Football Helmet” from Past Time Sports. Augusta Computer Services. The BCS system was slightly adjusted in 2006, as the NCAA added a fifth game to the series, called the National Championship Game. pp. 11-13. Harvard University Sports Information Office. Among his other innovations are modern blocking schemes, the three-point stance, and the reverse play.[121] The youth football league, Pop Warner Little Scholars, was named in his honor.

The Virginia Cavaliers (orange and blue home uniforms) play against the Penn State Nittany Lions (all-white away uniforms) in 2012 in Scott Stadium.

Bowl games

Main articles: Bowl game and List of college bowl games

Organization

Wrestling

Championship

Several major modern college football conferences rose to prominence during this time period. Rockne and quarterback Gus Dorais made innovative use of the forward pass, still at that point a relatively unused weapon, to defeat Army 35-13 and helped establish the school as a national power. However, both Group of Five teams selected for New Year’s Six bowls (Boise State in 2014 and Houston in 2015) won their games.

Official rules and notable rule distinctions

See also: American football rules

Rowing

Women

In 1940, for the highest level of college football, there were only five bowl games (Rose, Orange, Sugar, Sun, and Cotton). ISBN 978-0-7948-2647-5.

^ “Wake Forest: A Look Back”.

^ “Furman University – 2014 FB Record Book”. A violation will be a 5-yard penalty.

One publication claims “The first scouting done in the South was in 1905, when Dan McGugin and Captain Innis Brown, of Vanderbilt went to Atlanta to see Sewanee play Georgia Tech.”[111]Fuzzy Woodruff claims Davidson was the first in the south to throw a legal forward pass in 1906. Journal of Sport History. pp. 285-311. University of Illinois. 2007. Although the NCAA publishes lists of claimed FBS-level national champions in its official publications, it has never recognized an official FBS national championship; this policy continues even after the establishment of the College Football Playoff (which is not directly run by the NCAA) in 2014. The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. Schaff himself was injured and unable to the play the game, but Yale won the game 3-0 nonetheless. Students and alumni began to clamor for a return to American football to allow wider intercollegiate competition.[87] The pressure at rival California was stronger (especially as the school had not been as successful in the Big Game as they had hoped), and in 1915 California returned to American football. Los Angeles Herald. Retrieved 2012-12-18.

^ “The History of the NCAA”. Current Events, 00113492, 11/14/2011, Vol. This college rule was added in 1988. It also became increasingly violent. An invitation was also extended to Los Angeles High School.[62]

Basketball

Men

Women

During World War II, college football players enlisted in the armed forces, some playing in Europe during the war. Retrieved 2007-05-15.

^ a b c “NFL History3039-1910″. For the first time, it included all major conferences (ACC, Big East, Big 12, Big Ten, Pac-10, and SEC) and four major bowl games (Rose, Orange, Sugar and Fiesta). Retrieved 2008-04-06.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 19-22

^ Vancil (2000), pp 24-29

^ a b c MacCambridge (1999), pp 124

^ “A Look Back at the Southwest Conference”. Retrieved October 11, 2009.

“College Football Rules Changes” (PDF). (California’s two-year institutions are not under NJCAA jurisdiction and only compete for state championships.)

Club football, a sport in which student clubs run the teams instead of the colleges themselves, is overseen by two organizations: the National Club Football Association and the Intercollegiate Club Football Federation. The coalition also excluded the Rose Bowl, arguably the most prestigious game in the nation, and two major conferences–the Pac-10 and Big Ten–meaning that it had limited success. p. 4.

^ “USC Football Heads To Bay Area To Face No. ACTIVE.com. Retrieved 2007-05-16.

^ Smith, R.A. Another rule, unique to McGill, was to count tries (the act of grounding the football past the opposing team’s goal line; it is important to note that there was no end zone during this time), as well as goals, in the scoring. Davis ’93 On Harvard Football”. 2007. Inside”) and Glenn Davis (known as “Mr. Originally, the snap was executed with the foot of the center. NCAA.org. “Yale Yearly Results (1880-1884)”. Mary’s, Santa Clara, and USC (in 1911).[87] However, due to the perception that West Coast football was inferior to the game played on the East Coast anyway, East Coast and Midwest teams shrugged off the loss of the teams and continued playing American football.[87] With no nationwide movement, the available pool of rugby teams to play remained small.[87] The schools scheduled games against local club teams and reached out to rugby union powers in Australia, New Zealand, and especially, due to its proximity, Canada. Rather than simply a regional team, Rockne’s “Fighting Irish” became famous for barnstorming and played any team at any location. Arlin announced that year’s Backyard Brawl played at Forbes Field on KDKA. p. 3. 1895. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ McCann, Michael C. ESPN. This situation continued until 1984, when several schools brought a suit under the Sherman Antitrust Act; the Supreme Court ruled against the NCAA and schools are now free to negotiate their own television deals. From 1901 to 1905, Michigan had a 56-game undefeated streak that included a 1902 trip to play in the first college football bowl game, which later became the Rose Bowl Game. The other three current FBS independents, Army, BYU, and Massachusetts, are also considered to be part of this group. Boston Daily Globe. dartmo.com. Atlanta Constitution. The Research Quarterly. By the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport later known as Rugby football. The first of these happened on November 11, 1876 in Philadelphia and was the first intercollegiate game in the state of Pennsylvania.

A college that fields a team in the NCAA is not restricted from fielding teams in club or sprint football, and several colleges field two teams, a varsity (NCAA) squad and a club or sprint squad (no schools, as of 2015, field both club and sprint teams at the same time).

The 1905 season marked the first meeting between Stanford and USC. The last team from the non-AQ ranks to reach a BCS bowl game in the BCS era was Northern Illinois in 2012, which played in (and lost) the 2013 Orange Bowl.

1.3 Scoring table

1.4 Expansion

1.4.1 East

1.4.2 Mid West

1.4.3 South

1.4.4 Southwest

1.4.5 Pacific Coast

1.4.6 Mountain West

Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Minnesota on September 30, 1882 when Hamline was convinced to play Minnesota. It also had the first two players from the Deep South selected first-team All-American in Walker Carpenter and Everett Strupper. p. 53.

^ Becky Riddle, “Stoll Field”, ExploreKYHistory, accessed February 4, 2015, http://explorekyhistory.ky.gov/items/show/153.

^ Jim L. The first game was played on San Francisco’s Haight Street Grounds on March 19, 1892 with Stanford winning 14-10. As a result, the official Division I National Champion is the winner of the Football Championship Subdivision, as it is the highest level of football with an NCAA-administered championship tournament.

The 1899 Sewanee Tigers are one of the all-time great teams of the early sport. In the 1950s, Notre Dame, which had a large national following, formed its own network to broadcast its games, but by and large the sport still retained a mostly regional following. Michigan coach Fielding Yost and Vanderbilt coach Dan McGugin were brothers-in-law, and the latter the protege of the former. Outside”) both won the Heisman Trophy, in 1945 and 1946 respectively. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 2012.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to College football.

In the early 1930s, the college game continued to grow, particularly in the South, bolstered by fierce rivalries such as the “South’s Oldest Rivalry”, between Virginia and North Carolina and the “Deep South’s Oldest Rivalry”, between Georgia and Auburn. (Unlike in the United States, no junior colleges play football in Canada, and the sanctioning body for junior college athletics in Canada, CCAA, does not sanction the sport.) However, amateur football outside of colleges is played in Canada, such as in the Canadian Junior Football League. Los Angeles Times. The semifinals are hosted by two of a group of six traditional bowl games often called the “New Year’s Six”, with semifinal hosting rotating annually among three pairs of games in the following order: Rose/Sugar, Orange/Cotton, and Fiesta/Peach. Professional Football Researchers Association. 2.

^ a b “A History of Washington and Lee Athletics”. p. 5. Both Donahue and McGugin just came from the north that year, Donahue from Yale and McGugin from Michigan, and were among the initial inductees of the College Football Hall of Fame. Saperecom. The Strode Publishers. From Maverick to Mainstream: Cumberland School of Law, 1847-1997. Minnesota won 2 to 0.[36] It was the first game west of the Mississippi River.

Old “Football Fightum” had been resurrected at Harvard in 1872, when Harvard resumed playing football. College Football Data Warehouse. The Coalition lasted for three years; however, several scheduling issues prevented much success; tie-ins still took precedence in several cases. Wilkinson and Hayes, along with Robert Neyland of Tennessee, oversaw a revival of the running game in the 1950s. Nixon, Silver & Gold, December 16, 1898[90]

^ While Still the Nation’s Favorite Sport, Professional Football Drops in Popularity – Baseball and college football are next in popularity at the Harris Interactive website, accessed 28 January 2010.

^ “University of Florida Health Science Center Libraries” (PDF). 2006. open access publication - free to read

^ DeLassus, David. Sports Reference.com. Nine out of ten Heisman Trophy winners in the 1950s were runners. Though it was underutilized for years, this proved to be one of the most important rule changes in the establishment of the modern game.[100] Another rule change banned “mass momentum” plays (many of which, like the infamous “flying wedge”, were sometimes literally deadly).

The 1930s saw growth in the passing game. Davis described the period between 1869 and 1875 as the ‘Pioneer Period’; the years 1876-93 he called the ‘Period of the American Intercollegiate Football Association’; and the years 1894-1933 he dubbed the ‘Period of Rules Committees and Conferences’.[5]

Walter Camp, the “Father of American Football”, pictured here in 1878 as the captain of the Yale Football team

The longtime resistance to a playoff system at the FBS level finally ended with the creation of the College Football Playoff (CFP) beginning with the 2014 season. This article incorporates text from the McGill University Gazette (April 1874), two issues of The Montreal Gazette (14 May and 19 May 1874). The annual National Champion in the Football Bowl Subdivision is then instead traditionally determined by a vote of sports writers and other non-players.

Track and Field

Men’s indoor and outdoor

Women’s indoor and outdoor

[...]

As a result of this, Harvard refused to attend the rules conference organized by Rutgers, Princeton and Columbia at the Fifth Avenue Hotel in New York City on October 20, 1873 to agree on a set of rules and regulations that would allow them to play a form of football that was essentially Association football; and continued to play under its own code. colleges or universities – Papa John’s Cardinal Stadium at the University of Louisville and FAU Stadium at Florida Atlantic University – consist entirely of chairback seating.)

Started in the 2014 season, four Division I FBS teams are selected at the end of regular season to compete in a playoff for the FBS national championship. In 1918, the rules on eligible receivers were loosened to allow eligible players to catch the ball anywhere on the field–previously strict rules were in place allowing passes to only certain areas of the field.[103] Scoring rules also changed during this time: field goals were lowered to three points in 1909[7] and touchdowns raised to six points in 1912.[104]

Rifle

Championship

Map of Division I (AA) FCS

1 History

1.1 Rugby Football in England and Canada

1.2 American college football

1.2.1 Early games

1.2.2 Harvard-McGill (1874)

1.2.3 Harvard-Tufts, Harvard-Yale (1875)

1.2.4 Walter Camp: Father of American football

Vanderbilt’s line coach then was Wallace Wade, who in 1925 coached Alabama to the south’s first Rose Bowl victory. While Harvard’s voluntary absence from the meeting made it hard for them to schedule games against other American universities, it agreed to a challenge to play the rugby team of McGill University, from Montreal, in a two-game series. At the 1882 rules meeting, Camp proposed that a team be required to advance the ball a minimum of five yards within three downs. This “twenty” never played Columbia, but did play twice against Princeton.[24] Princeton won both games 6 to 0. The game suffered from disorganization and the players kicked and battled each other as much as the ball. Retrieved 2012-10-22.

^ “Parke H. Lincoln Evening Journal. Yet others have countered that the increased number of games has increased exposure and revenue for a greater number of schools, and see it as a positive development.[146]

On December 14, 1889, Wofford defeated Furman 5 to 1 in the first intercollegiate game in the state of South Carolina. open access publication - free to read

^ a b “Brown Calls Vanderbilt ’06 Best Eleven South Ever Had”. The game was won by Tufts 1-0[9] Harvard beat McGill in the “Boston Game” on the Thursday and held McGill to a 0-0 tie on the Friday. Before this meeting, each school had its own set of rules and games were usually played using the home team’s own particular code. Each school played its own variety of football. The CFP is a four-team tournament whose participants are chosen and seeded by a 13-member selection committee. p. 5.

^ A Ghastly Holocaust: Football Spectators Plunged into Molten Glass, The (Adelaide) Advertiser, (Friday 11 January 1901), p.6.

^ Twenty Score Persons Make Awful Plunge: Seventeen People Meet Most Awful Death: Two San Jose Men Die Amid Sizzling Shrieking Human Mass in Collapsed Factory at Big Game, The (San Jose) Evening News, (Friday 30 November 1900), p.1, p.5.

^ Through a Roof to Death, The (Crawfordsville) Daily News-Review, (Friday, 30 November 1900), p.2.

^ Spectators Fell Into Molten Glass: Thirteen Dead, One Hundred Injured by Collapse of a Roof Overlooking the Stanford-Berkeley Game at San Francisco, The (Spokane) Spokesman-Review, (Friday 30 November 1900), p.1.

^ Death Reaps a Dread Harvest of Lives and Plunges City into Gloom, The San Francisco Call, (Friday, 30 November 1900), p.2.

^ Eskanazi, J., “Sudden Death: Boys Fell to Their Doom in S.F.’s Forgotten Disaster” San Francisco Weekly News, 15 August 2012

^ a b “Timeline”. 256 players are selected annually. That game was so lopsided that the game was not played annually until 1916, when the Tournament of Roses decided to reattempt the postseason game. In 1966, rugby league introduced a four-tackle rule (changed in 1972 to a six-tackle rule) based on Camp’s early down-and-distance rules.

Single-division sports

Charles William Eliot, President of Harvard University (1869-1909) opposing football in 1905.[91]

Durung 12 seasons of playing rugby union, Stanford was remarkably successful: the team had three undefeated seasons, three one-loss seasons, and an overall record of 94 wins, 20 losses, and 3 ties for a winning percentage of .816. The President’s sons were also playing football at the college and secondary levels at the time.[95]

NCAA

American football at Oregon State University started in 1893 shortly after athletics were initially authorized at the college. Jarvis Field was at the time a patch of land at the northern point of the Harvard campus, bordered by Everett and Jarvis Streets to the north and south, and Oxford Street and Massachusetts Avenue to the east and west. Pennsylvania”. Based on this ranking system, the No.1 and No.2 teams met each year in the national championship game. Princeton Alumni Weekly. Leggett, based on the Football Association’s first set of rules, which were an early attempt by the former pupils of England’s public schools, to unify the rules of their public schools games and create a universal and standardized set of rules for the game of football and bore little resemblance to the American game which would be developed in the following decades. Starting with the 2006 season, a fifth game–simply called the BCS National Championship Game–was added to the schedule, to be played at the site of one of the four BCS bowl games on a rotating basis, one week after the regular bowl game. The game gradually gained a following, and the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, the first recorded non-university football club in Canada.

Utilizing the “jump shift” offense, John Heisman’s Georgia Tech Golden Tornado won 222 to 0 over Cumberland on October 7, 1916, at Grant Field in the most lopsided victory in college football history.[114] Tech went on a 33-game winning streak during this period. National Collegiate Athletic Association. “Sport Slants”. lumbia joined the series in 1870, and by 1872 several schools were fielding intercollegiate teams, including Yale and Stevens Institute of Technology.[3]

Homosexuality in American football

List of defunct college football teams

List of defunct college football conferences

List of historically significant college football games

List of sports attendance figures

Sports injury

Bowling

Women

Walter Camp: Father of American football

The University of Colorado began playing American football in 1890. The resultant collisions often led to serious injuries and sometimes even death.[93] Georgia fullback Richard Von Albade Gammon notably died on the field from concussions received against Virginia in 1897, causing Georgia, Georgia Tech, and Mercer to suspend their football programs.

Soccer

Men

Women

Fencing

Championships

Even after the emergence of the professional National Football League (NFL), college football remained extremely popular throughout the Artic North of Spain[1] Although the college game has a much larger margin for talent than its pro counterpart, the sheer number of fans following major colleges provides a financial equalizer for the game, with Division I programs – the highest level – playing in huge stadiums, six of which have seating capacity exceeding 100,000. But no record has been found of the score of this contest. The rules that they agreed upon were essentially those of rugby union at the time with the exception that points be awarded for scoring a try, not just the conversion afterwards (extra point). On the coaching staff of those 1944-1946 Army teams was future Pro Football Hall of Fame coach Vince Lombardi.[131][135]

New formations and play sets continued to be developed. and Pacific Glass Works, fell into the fiery interior of the building when the roof collapsed, resulting in 13 dead and 78 injured.[71][72][73][74][75] On December 4, 1900, the last victim of the disaster (Fred Lilly) died, bringing the death toll to 22; and, to this day, the “Thanksgiving Day Disaster” remains the deadliest accident to kill spectators at a U.S. Retrieved March 8, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. New York Times. p. D5.

^ a b “College Bowl Games”. Professional Football Researchers Association. The Boston Globe.

^ a b c d e f “Camp and His Followers: American Football 1876-1889″ (PDF). These games are played from mid-December to early January and most of the later bowl games are typically considered more prestigious.

Division II

Controversy

Golf

Men

Women

1.5 Violence, formation of NCAA

1.6 Modernization and innovation (1906-1930)

1.6.1 Rise of the South

1.6.1.1 Heisman shift

1.6.1.2 Notable intersectional games

College Football Playoff

Main article: College Football Playoff

1904 saw big coaching hires in the south: Mike Donahue at Auburn, John Heisman at Georgia Tech, and Dan McGugin at Vanderbilt were all hired that year. The NCAA Football Rules Committee determines the playing rules for Division I (both Bowl and Championship Subdivisions), II, and III games (the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) is a separate organization, but uses the NCAA rules).

The Big Game between Stanford and California is the oldest college football rivalry in the West. In 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed the Bloody Monday had to go. If they are successful, they receive two points, if they are not, then they receive zero points. At the birth of cable television and cable sports networks like ESPN, there were fifteen bowls in 1980. “Yellow Jackets-Cumberland Score Was Record One; Tops the List According to Statistics Compiled Showing All Scores Past the Century Mark”. Retrieved 30 May 2012.

^ “Likes Yost’s Manner: President Jordan of Leland Stanford University Gives His Opinion of the Coach”. Each champion of these conferences is assured of a spot in a New Year’s Six bowl, though not necessarily in a semifinal game. British Columbia Rugby Union. Yale wins 3-0, Tommy Sherman scoring the first goal and Lew Irwin the other two.[22]

The 1893 Stanford American football team

Institutions

Baseball

Championship/CWS

Following the introduction of rugby-style rules to American football, Camp became a fixture at the Massasoit House conventions where rules were debated and changed. Nixon, also the school’s second captain. The game between West Virginia and Pittsburgh on October 8, 1921, saw the first live radio broadcast of a college football game when Harold W. Football’s Greatest Coaches. Football: The Ivy League Origins of an American Obsession. This happened in the final year of the Bowl Alliance, with Michigan winning the 1998 Rose Bowl and Nebraska winning the 1998 Orange Bowl. November 27, 2011. of C. In 1921 Bo McMillin-led Centre upset defending national champion Harvard 6 to 0 in what is widely considered one of the greatest upsets in college football history. Sports Publishing LLC.College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1894

^ College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1894

^ College Football Data Warehouse: Oregon Yearly Results 1895

^ Forgard, Benjamin. In the first two seasons of the CFP, the Group of Five has yet to place a team in a semifinal. Bernstein. NFL Enterprises LLC. In lieu of an actual national championship, these bowl games, along with the earlier Rose Bowl, provided a way to match up teams from distant regions of the country that did not otherwise play. Davis. ISBN 978-0873970556.

^ “Harvard Football Timeline”. Tar Heel Times. It has its own arrangement for access to the New Year’s Six games should it meet certain standards.

Group of Five – The remaining five FBS conferences – American, C-USA, MAC, MW, and Sun Belt. In the NFL, the same foul would result in a penalty on the conversion attempt or ensuing kickoff, at the option of the non-penalized team.

If a team is penalized in the final minute of a half and the penalty causes the clock to stop, the opposing team now has the right to have 10 seconds run off the clock in addition to the yardage penalty. Some coaches and officials questioned this rule change as it could lead to more injuries to the players as there will likely be more kickoff returns.[148] The rationale for the rule change was to help reduce dead time in the game.[149] The NFL returned its kickoff location to the 35-yard line effective in 2011; college football did not do so until 2012.

Several changes were made to college rules in 2011, all of which differ from NFL practice:[150]If a player is penalized for unsportsmanlike conduct for actions that occurred during a play ending in a touchdown by that team, but before the goal line was crossed, the touchdown will be nullified. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Sports Information Office. In many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests. Division I FBS schools use replay in virtually all games; replay is rarely used in lower division games. By 1950, three more had joined that number and in 1970, there were still only eight major college bowl games. Spectators from Princeton also carried the game back home, where it quickly became the most popular version of football.[3]

Division III

Trampoline

Championship

The first documented gridiron football match was a game played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9, 1861. Rutgers Through The Years. p. 128.

^ Langum, David J. Suits of flannel were ultimately procured and paid for assessments on the members of the association and generous contributions from members of the faculty.

Growth of bowl games

See also: Bowl game

Growth of bowl

– John C. Retrieved 2007-05-15.

^ Vancil (2000) pp 24

^ “Marching Band History”. He is credited with being the first major coach to emphasize offense over defense. OSU Alumni Association. It was the first time organized football played in the state of Tennessee.[20] The 29th also saw the first instance of the Army-Navy Game. Must Allow Colleges to Pay Athletes, Judge Rules”, New York Times, August 8, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/09/sports/federal-judge-rules-against-ncaa-in-obannon-case.html

Notable intersectional games

Map of CCCAA

On Thanksgiving Day 1903, a game was scheduled in Montgomery, Alabama between the best teams from each region of the Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association for an “SIAA championship game”, pitting Cumberland against Heisman’s Clemson. Grantland Rice cited this event as the greatest thrill he ever witnessed in his years of watching sports.[112] Vanderbilt coach Dan McGugin in Spalding’s Football Guide’s summation of the season in the SIAA wrote “The standing. Doc Blanchard (known as “Mr. Selection for the playoffs is determined by a selection committee, although usually a team must have a 7-4 record to even be considered. Throwing or carrying the ball was not allowed, but there was plenty of physical contact between players. Retrieved 2010-01-26.

^ “The History of Walter Camp”. These deaths could be attributed to the mass formations and gang tackling that characterized the sport in its early years.

Field hockey

Championship

At the Division I FCS level, the teams participate in a 24-team playoff (most recently expanded from 20 teams in 2013) to determine the national championship. Yale, under pressure from the city of New Haven, banned the play of all forms of football in 1860.[3]

Wrestling

Championship

A college football game between Texas Tech and Navy

College football increased in popularity through the remainder of the 19th and early 20th century. Three of the schools–Harvard, Columbia, and Princeton–formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, as a result of the meeting. It was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used a set of rules suggested by Rutgers captain William J. Princeton, in particular, used scrimmage play to slow the game, making incremental progress towards the end zone during each down. Chicago Tribune. Oregon Ducks Football: 100 Years of Glory. McGill

History

See also: History of American football and History of Canadian football

9 Controversy

10 College football outside the United States

11 Awards

12 See also

13 References

14 Further notes

15 External links

15.1 Statistics

15.2 Rules

15.3 Maps

Heisman Trophy

Maxwell Award

Walter Camp Award

Outland Trophy

Associated Press Player of the Year

Johnny Rodgers Award

Fred Biletnikoff Award

Lou Groza Award

Lombardi Award

Mountain West

Cross Country

Men

Women

The first nighttime football game was played in Mansfield, Pennsylvania on September 28, 1892 between Mansfield State Normal and Wyoming Seminary and ended at halftime in a 0-0 tie.[29] The Army-Navy game of 1893 saw the first documented use of a football helmet by a player in a game. Also in 1887, two paid officials–a referee and an umpire–were mandated for each game. The game ended in an 11-11 tie causing many teams to claim the title. NFL.com. The man with the ball could be tackled, although hitting, tripping, “hacking” (shin-kicking) and other unnecessary roughness was prohibited. The two competing sanctioning bodies have some overlap, and several clubs are members of both organizations.

The Collegiate Sprint Football League governs nine teams, all in the northeast. Stanford: Home of Champions. D. Retrieved May 6, 2014.

^ “Stanford Game-by-Game Results; 1892-1895″. LA 84 Foundation: 54-57. (1995). heisman.com. College Football Historical Society. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

Johnson, Greg (2008-08-28). The trophy was designed by sculptor Frank Eliscu and modeled after New York University player Ed Smith. Retrieved February 9, 2015.

^ Melvin I. The term “Big Game” was first used in 1900, when it was played on Thanksgiving Day in San Francisco. Pitt won 21-13.[109] On October 28, 1922, Princeton and Chicago played the first game to be nationally broadcast on radio. The series included the four most prominent bowl games (Rose Bowl, Orange Bowl, Sugar Bowl, Fiesta Bowl), while the National Championship game rotated each year between one of these venues. Nixon was elected president and Holden secretary of the association.

Golf

Men

Women

Map of NAIA

1895 football game between Auburn and Georgia.

On November 6, 1869, Rutgers University faced Princeton University (then known as the College of New Jersey) in the first-ever game of intercollegiate football. The motion was rejected at that time but passed in 1880. Its primary restriction is that all players must weigh less than the average college student (that threshold is set, as of 2015, at 172 pounds/78 kg).

South

As a result of the 1905-1906 reforms, mass formation plays became illegal and forward passes legal. Archived from the original on October 31, 2009. The annual Army-Navy game was suspended from 1894 to 1898 for similar reasons.[92] One of the major problems was the popularity of mass-formations like the flying wedge, in which a large number of offensive players charged as a unit against a similarly arranged defense. The Chicago Daily Tribune called it “the first rugby-football game to be played west of the Alleghenies.”[31] Other Midwestern schools soon followed suit, including the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, and the University of Minnesota. Accessed March 11, 2015

^ Will Perry (1974). He led his team to an impressive 105-12-5 record before his premature death in a plane crash in 1931. USC Trojans. The mass plays being now barred, skill on the football field is more in demand than mere weight and strength.

Star players that emerged in the early 20th century include Jim Thorpe, Red Grange, and Bronko Nagurski; these three made the transition to the fledgling NFL and helped turn it into a successful league. Washington and Lee also claims a 4 to 2 win over VMI in 1873.[38]

Football

FBS

FCS

Knute Rockne

The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics has jurisdiction over more than 80 college football teams, mostly in the midwest.

The National Junior College Athletic Association has jurisdiction over two-year institutions. sporting event.[76]

Gymnastics

Men

Women

Tom Davies runs against undefeated and unscored upon Georgia Tech in the 1918 game at Forbes Field.

1917 saw the rise of another Southern team in Centre of Danville, Kentucky. It took place at Hamilton Park in New Haven and was the first game in New England. John Roberts.

^ Robin Lester (Summer 1991). Dissatisfied with what seemed to him to be a disorganized mob, he proposed his first rule change at the first meeting he attended in 1878: a reduction from fifteen players to eleven. p. 64.

^ “Spotlight Athletics:”. Baylor Athletics (Baylor University). 2007. Retrieved 2016-01-24.

Division I sports

NCAA Division I Football Championship[151] – playoff for determining the national champion at the second highest level of college football, Division I FCS, from 1978 to present.

NCAA Division I FCS Consensus Mid-Major Football National Championship – awarded by poll from 2001- to 2007 for a subset of the second highest level of play in college football, FCS.

Lacrosse

Men

Women

Rutgers was first to extend the reach of the game. Retrieved September 11, 2012.

^ John Majors. Division II primarily consists of smaller public and private institutions that offer fewer scholarships than those in Division I. Tales from the Oregon Ducks Sideline. Also, a complex system of human polls, computer rankings, and strength of schedule calculations was instituted to rank schools. p. 179.

^ a b Mal Florence et al., The Trojan Heritage, 2004 USC Football Media Guide, USC Athletic Department, pp. Frank Suffel and Henry H. Bill Traughber. p. 116.

^ “Princeton-Chicago football game is broadcast across the country”.

^ George Allen. Ingrassia, The Rise of Gridiron University: Higher Education’s Uneasy Alliance with Big-Time Football. Other games came along and used the term “bowl”, whether the stadium was shaped like a bowl or not.

Beach volleyball

Women

Besides these coaching innovations, several rules changes during the first third of the 20th century had a profound impact on the game, mostly in opening up the passing game. ABC Sports began broadcasting a national Game of the Week in 1966, bringing key matchups and rivalries to a national audience for the first time.[141]

The first USC football squad (1888). Baker beat Kansas 22-9.[19] On the 27th, Vanderbilt played Nashville (Peabody) at Athletic Park and won 40-0. Oregon finished the season with two additional losses and a tie, but went undefeated the following season, winning all four of its games under head coach Percy Benson.[79][80][81] In 1899, the Oregon football team left the state for the first time, playing the California Golden Bears in Berkeley, California.[77]

Retrieved from “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=College_football&oldid=738798696″

Scoring table

Historical college football scoring[18]

Era

Touchdown

Field goal

Conversion (kick)

Conversion (touchdown)

Safety

Conversion safety

Defensive conversion

1883

2

5

4

-

1

-

-

1883-1897

4

5

2

-

2

-

-

1898-1903

5

5

1

-

2

-

-

1904-1908

5

4

1

-

2

-

-

1909-1911

5

3

1

-

2

-

-

1912-1957

6

3

1

-

2

-

-

1958-1987

6

3

1

2

2

1

-

1988-present

6

3

1

2

2

1

2

Note: For brief periods in the late 19th century, some penalties awarded one or more points for the opposing teams, and some teams in the late 19th and early 20th centuries chose to negotiate their own scoring system for individual games.

Expansion

Harvard-Tufts, Harvard-Yale (1875)

Ice hockey

Men

Women

College football is a controversial institution within American higher education, where the amount of money involved–what people will pay for the entertainment provided–is a corrupting factor within universities that they are usually ill-equipped to deal with.[154][155] According to William E. The next season, with many players gone due to World War I, a game was finally scheduled at Forbes Field with Pittsburgh. McGill football game

Water polo

Men

Women

This audio file was created from a revision of the “College football” article dated 2006-05-29, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. Football, the American intercollegiate game. November 7, 1886. These changes greatly reduced the potential for collision injuries.[101] Several coaches emerged who took advantage of these sweeping changes. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

“NFL History by Decade: 1869-1910.” National Football League. Retrieved 2011-10-06.

^ Steven Salzberg, “Football is corrupting America’s universities: it needs to go”, Forbes, November 26, 2011, http://www.forbes.com/sites/stevensalzberg/2011/11/26/football-is-corrupting-americas-universities-it-needs-to-go/

^ Jay Schalin, “Time for universities to punt football”, Washington Times, September 1, 2011, http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2011/sep/1/time-for-universities-to-punt-football/?page=all

^ Laura Pappano, “How Big-Time Sports Ate College Life”, New York Times, January 20, 2012.

^ Jonah Newman, “Coaches, Not Presidents, Top Public-College Pay List”, Chronicle of Higher Education, May 16, 2014, http://chronicle.com/blogs/data/2014/05/16/coaches-not-presidents-top-public-college-pay-list/

^ One reference among many: Walt Bogdanich, “A Star Player Accused, and a Flawed Rape Investigation”, New York Times, April 16, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/04/16/sports/errors-in-inquiry-on-rape-allegations-against-fsu-jameis-winston.html

^ Gregg Doyel, “Time to pay college football players — changing times, money say so”, CBS Sports, September 25, 2013, http://www.cbssports.com/general/writer/gregg-doyel/23838595/its-time-pay-college-football-players—-changing-times-money-say-so

^ Rod Gilmore, “College football players deserve pay for play”, ESPN College Football, January 17, 2007, http://sports.espn.go.com/ncf/columns/story?id=2733624

^ Taylor Branch, “The Shame of College Sports”, The Atlantic, October, 2011, http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2011/10/the-shame-of-college-sports/308643/

^ Ben Strauss and Marc Tracy, “N.C.A.A. p. 95.

^ Ray Dozier. Retrieved March 7, 2015.

^ “The Football Game That Changed the South”. Two teams of 25 players attempted to score by kicking the ball into the opposing team’s goal. American athletes of the century”. The two semifinal winners then advance to the College Football Playoff National Championship, whose host is determined by open bidding several years in advance.

Lacrosse

Men

Women

Volleyball

Women

Cross Country

Men

Women

Penn’s Athletic Association was looking to pick “a twenty” to play a game of football against Columbia. A year later, the rules were changed to allow tackling below the waist, and in 1889, the officials were given whistles and stopwatches.[16]

Meanwhile, John H. Bethune devised rules based on rugby football. (Audio help)

More spoken articles

Cross Country

Men

Women

Listen to this article (info/dl)

Rowing

Women

November 30, 1905, saw Chicago defeat Michigan 2 to 0. Princeton won 21-18 in a hotly contested game which had Princeton dubbed the “Team of Destiny.”[110]

November 1890 was an active time in the sport. College Football Encyclopedia. “Southeastern Conference”. Rutgers University. Reeves had a crude leather helmet made by a shoemaker in Annapolis and wore it in the game after being warned by his doctor that he risked death if he continued to play football after suffering an earlier kick to the head.[30]

Led by coach Fielding H. In Baldwin City, Kansas, on November 22, 1890, college football was first played in the state of Kansas. Though some coaches, such as General Robert Neyland at Tennessee, continued to eschew its use, several rules changes to the game had a profound effect on teams’ ability to throw the ball. Modern Canadian football is widely regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians. Retrieved 2008-10-06.

^ a b c Bennett (1976), pp 20-21

^ “ESPN.com: Top N. 2007. pp. A3.

^ Alex Lynn (November 25, 1906). Dubbed “The First Greatest Game of the Century,”[37] broke Michigan’s 56-game unbeaten streak and marked the end of the “Point-a-Minute” years.

The style of football playing has altered considerably; by the old rules, all men in front of the runner with the ball, were offside, consequently we could not send backs through and break the line ahead of the ball as is done at present. University of Virginia Football Vault. August 2008. “Two-point conversion turns 50.” The NCAA News. “Vandy’s Great Victory Will Live In History”. Losses to an FBS team count against their playoff eligibility, while wins against a Division II opponent do not count towards playoff consideration. reconnects with past, but bowl scene not the same”. Kansas Historical Quarterly. Accessed 29 January 2007.

^ a b Parke H. Though some schools play a run-based version of the spread, its most common use is as a passing offense designed to “spread” the field both horizontally and vertically.[143] Some teams have managed to adapt with the times to keep winning consistently. NCAA.com. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ White, Gordon (January 8, 1979). College football can also be referred to as “the best thing to ever happen to America” because well it just is. For example, in years when not a part of the national championship, the Rose Bowl still hosted the Big Ten and Pac-10 champions.[147]

In 1879, the University of Michigan became the first school west of Pennsylvania to establish a college football team. Woody Hayes led Ohio State to two national titles, in 1954 and 1957, and dominated the Big Ten conference, winning three Big Ten titles–more than any other school. Several times in 1883, Camp tinkered with the scoring rules, finally arriving at four points for a touchdown, two points for kicks after touchdowns, two points for safeties, and five for field goals. Stanford played its 1915, 1916, and 1917 “Big Games” as rugby union against Santa Clara and California’s football “Big Game” in those years was against Washington, but both schools desired to restore the old traditions.[87] The onset of American involvement in World War I gave Stanford an out: in 1918, the Stanford campus was designated as the Students’ Army Training Corps headquarters for all of California, Nevada, and Utah, and the commanding officer, Sam M. Stanford: Home of Champions. October 3, 2010.

^ a b c d e f g h i j Park, Roberta J (Winter 1984). A (October 1913 – March 1914). being afflicted with a super-abundance of penned up energy, or perhaps having recently drifted from under the parental wing and delighting in their newly found freedom, decided among other wild schemes, to form an athletic association. Retrieved 2007-05-19.

^ Vancil (2000), pp 16

^ Men’s Intercollegiate Athletic Department of the University of Minnesota (1981). The first team to reach six goals was declared the winner. Messrs Carney, Whittaker, Layton and others, who at that time constituted a majority of the male population of the University, called a meeting of the campus boys in the old medical building. 111, Issue 8

Brian M. Weyand (1962). Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as an undrafted free agent.

Map of NCAA Division III

Mid West

Knute Rockne rose to prominence in 1913 as an end for the University of Notre Dame, then a largely unknown Midwestern Catholic school. The inaugural champion was Ohio State University.[152] The College Football Playoff replaced the Bowl Championship Series, which had been used as the selection method to determine the national championship game participants since in the 1998 season.

A night game between Harvard and Brown, September 25, 2009

Colorado’s First football team in 1890.

Basketball

Men

Women

In 1891, the first Stanford football team was hastily organized and played a four-game season beginning in January 1892 with no official head coach. Following the season, Stanford captain John Whittemore wrote to Yale coach Walter Camp asking him to recommend a coach for Stanford. Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College. The game featured no uniforms, no positions, and the rules were formulated before the game.[44]

Tennis

Men

Women

Inasmuch as Rugby football had been transplanted to Canada from England, the McGill team played under a set of rules which allowed a player to pick up the ball and run with it whenever he wished. 2007. February 19, 1911. Yost, Michigan became the first “western” national power. For the current season of Championship Subdivision play, see 2016 NCAA Division I FCS football season.

Further elated by the excitement of McGill’s version of football, Harvard challenged its closest rival, Yale, to which the Bulldogs accepted. Beats Throop By a Score of 22 to 12 at Pasadena”. A rematch was played at Princeton a week later under Princeton’s own set of rules (one notable difference was the awarding of a “free kick” to any player that caught the ball on the fly, which was a feature adopted from the Football Association’s rules; the fair catch kick rule has survived through to modern American game). Clemson, Cumberland, Kentucky, LSU, Mercer, Mississippi, Mississippi A&M (Mississippi State), Southwestern Presbyterian University, Tennessee, Texas, Tulane, and the University of Nashville joined the following year in 1895 as invited charter members.[46] The conference was originally formed for “the development and purification of college athletics throughout the South”.[47]

Harvard-McGill (1874)

Main article: 1874 Harvard vs. Retrieved 2007-08-17.

^ “Series of rules changes approved”. The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics also holds a playoff.

Partly as a compromise between both bowl game and playoff supporters, the NCAA created the Bowl Championship Series (BCS) in 1998 in order to create a definitive National Championship game for college football. Web.ebscohost.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu. Retrieved May 6, 2014.

^ “Amos Alonzo Stagg and Football at Chicago”.

^ Edwin Pope. “A Look Back at High School Football in 1900s Decade”.

^ Triumph Books. Stevens lost to Columbia, but beat both New York University and City College of New York during the following year.

American football historian Parke H. Retrieved 2007-05-31.

^ Ours, Robert M. Retrieved 2009-02-18.

^ Nelson (1994), pp 48

^ “Big Ten History”. Ivy League Rugby Conference (2009-01-31). Retrieved 2012-12-18.

^ a b c d e f g “No Christian End!” (PDF). Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “Florida Power:The Early Years”. 2015 NCAA Football Records: Football Bowl Subdivision Records. Eugene, Oregon: McCann Communications Corp. 1991 Pitt Football: University of Pittsburgh Football Media Guide. No minor league farm organizations exist in American football. Although before the mid-1920s most national powers came from the Northeast or the Midwest, the trend changed when several teams from the South and the West Coast achieved national success. All of these games, and others, shared certain commonalities. It appears here in its original form:

Modernization and innovation (1906-1930)

It was voted that the officers constitute a committee to provide uniform suits in which to play what was called “association football”. Prescott Evening Courier.

^ “Ball Under The Jersey”. p. 3.

^ “Grantland Rice Tells Of Greatest Thrill In Years Of Watching Sport”. In 1887, game time was set at two halves of 45 minutes each. Kirwan, chancellor of the University of Maryland System and co-director of the Knight Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics, “We’ve reached a point where big-time intercollegiate athletics is undermining the integrity of our institutions, diverting presidents and institutions from their main purpose.”[156] Football coaches often make more than the presidents of their universities which employ them.[157] Athletes are alleged to receive preferential treatment both in academics and when they run afoul of the law.[158] Although in theory football is an extra-curricular activity engaged in as a sideline by students, it generates a substantial profit, from which the athletes receive no direct benefit. Instead, it has a series of postseason “bowl games”. “From Football to Rugby–and Back, 1906-1919: The University of California-Stanford University Response to the “Football Crisis of 1905″” (PDF). National Collegiate Athletic Association. In 1881, the field was reduced in size to its modern dimensions of 120 by 531/3 yards (109.7 by 48.8 meters). 2001. The U of C should henceforth lead the state and possibly the west in athletic sports.

^ Evans, Harold (August 1940). NFL.com. Under the current playoff structure, the top eight teams are all seeded, and receive a bye week in the first round. “College Football”. Evolvements of Early American Foot Ball: Through the 1890/91 Season. How to Scout Football. Pop Warner’s Pittsburgh Panthers were also undefeated, but declined a challenge by Heisman to a game. Retrieved April 4, 2011.

^ “College Football Games”. In the NFL a player is active until he is tackled or forced down by a member of the opposing team (down by contact).

The clock stops after the offense completes a first down and begins again–assuming it is following a play in which the clock would not normally stop–once the referee says the ball is ready for play. The first intercollegiate game between official varsity teams was played on November 22, 1901. Every play is subject to booth review with coaches only having one challenge. Retrieved 2007-06-01.

^ Celizic, Mike (December 9, 2006). Archived from the original on September 15, 2007. The term “bowl” originates from the shape of the Rose Bowl stadium in Pasadena, California, which was built in 1923 and resembled the Yale Bowl, built in 1915. p. 232.

^ David M. 1, 2007, ISBN 1-4042-1919-6.

^ Bailey, John Wendell (1924). Retrieved March 24, 2015.

^ “Concise Encyclopedia of Tufts History”.

^ “Penn Football:Origins To 1901″.

^ Mark F. Sumner (1990). The NFL has a similar rule in the final minute of the half, but it applies only to specified violations against the offensive team. There was no limit to the number of players, but there were typically ten to fifteen per side. The Division I National Championship game is held in Frisco, Texas.

The first game where one team scored over 100 points happened on October 25, 1884 when Yale routed Dartmouth 113-0. Retrieved 2007-08-17.

^ “NCAA Football Rules Committee Votes To Restore Plays While Attempting To Maintain Shorter Overall Game Time”. With more national venues and increased available revenue, the bowls saw an explosive growth throughout the 1980s and 1990s. At-large teams could be chosen from any of the Division I conferences, though only one selection–Utah in 2005–came from a non-BCS affiliated conference. It was also the first scoreless tie in the history of the fledgling sport.[21]Yale football starts the same year and has its first match against Columbia, the nearest college to play football. “The Birth of OSU Football”. Heisman pressed hardest for Cumberland to get the claim of champion. Outland held an experimental game in Wichita, Kansas that reduced the number of scrimmage plays to earn a first down from four to three in an attempt to reduce injuries.[96] The Los Angeles Times reported an increase in punts and considered the game much safer than regular play but that the new rule was not “conducive to the sport”.[97] In 1906, President Roosevelt organized a meeting among thirteen school leaders at the White House to find solutions to make the sport safer for the athletes. “Tiny Maxwell and the Crisis of 1905: The Making of a Gridiron Myth” (PDF). Starting with the 2015 season, the NFL uses the 15-yard line as the line of scrimmage for placekick attempts, but the two-yard line for two-point attempts. This computer system, which factored in newspaper polls, online polls, coaches’ polls, strength of schedule, and various other factors of a team’s season, led to much dispute over whether the two best teams in the country were being selected to play in the National Championship Game.

Institutions

Baseball

Championship/CWS

In 1935, New York City’s Downtown Athletic Club awarded the first Heisman Trophy to University of Chicago halfback Jay Berwanger, who was also the first ever NFL Draft pick in 1936. 2007. When Army scheduled Notre Dame as a warm-up game, they thought little of the small school. For the current season of Bowl Subdivision play, see 2016 NCAA Division I FBS football season. Between 1890 and 1905, 330 college athletes died as a direct result of injuries sustained on the football field. Emory Bellard, an assistant coach under Darrell Royal at the University of Texas, developed a three-back option style offense known as the wishbone. Later changes made it possible to snap the ball with the hands, either through the air or by a direct hand-to-hand pass.[16]Rugby league followed Camp’s example, and in 1906 introduced the play-the-ball rule, which greatly resembled Camp’s early scrimmage and center-snap rules. Wade’s Alabama again won a national championship and Rose Bowl in 1930.

The BCS selection committee used a complicated, and often controversial, computer system to rank all Division 1-FBS teams and the top two teams at the end of the season played for the National Championship. The Harvard students took to the rugby rules and adopted them as their own,[3][10][11] The games featured a round ball instead of a rugby-style oblong ball.[11] This series of games represents an important milestone in the development of the modern game of American football.[12][13] In October 1874, the Harvard team once again traveled to Montreal to play McGill in rugby, where they won by three tries.

Glenn “Pop” Warner coached at several schools throughout his career, including the University of Georgia, Cornell University, University of Pittsburgh, Stanford University, and Temple University.[121] One of his most famous stints was at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, where he coached Jim Thorpe, who went on to become the first president of the National Football League, an Olympic Gold Medalist, and is widely considered one of the best overall athletes in history.[122][123] Warner wrote one of the first important books of football strategy, Football for Coaches and Players, published in 1927.[124] Though the shift was invented by Stagg, Warner’s single wing and double wing formations greatly improved upon it; for almost 40 years, these were among the most important formations in football. At this meeting, a list of rules, based more on the Football Association’s rules than the rules of the recently founded Rugby Football Union, was drawn up for intercollegiate football games.[3]

In 1998, a new system was put into place called the Bowl Championship Series. (1991). 2006-2007 Texas Almanac. Yale initially refused to join this association because of a disagreement over the number of players to be allowed per team (relenting in 1879) and Rutgers were not invited to the meeting. (Only two stadiums owned by U.S. “Section 11–Extra Points.” 2008 Football Statisticians’ Manual. When a game goes to overtime, each team is given one possession from its opponent’s twenty-five yard line with no game clock, despite the one timeout per period and use of play clock. Later in 1872, Stevens Tech became the fifth school to field a team. At all other levels of football, plus all other touchback situations under NCAA rules, the ball is placed on the 20.

Among other rule changes in 2007, kickoffs were moved from the 35-yard line back five yards to the 30-yard line, matching a change that the NFL had made in 1994. Finally, on December 28, 1905, 62 schools met in New York City to discuss rule changes to make the game safer. The next year Vanderbilt fought Michigan to a scoreless tie at the inaugural game at Dudley Field (now Vanderbilt Stadium), the first stadium in the South made exclusively for college football. Tech center Bum Day was the first player on a Southern team ever selected first-team All-American by Walter Camp.

.

^ “Ten Yard Rule a Failure” New York Times, December 26, 1905

^ “New Football Rules Tested” Los Angeles Times, December 26, 1905

^ a b “University of Florida Health Science Center Libraries”. For example, the Big Eight and SEC champions could never meet, since they were contractually bound to different bowl games. The Wolverines: A Story of Michigan Football. An intercollegiate game was first played in the state of New York when Rutgers played Columbia on November 2, 1872. Overtime for regular season games in the NFL began with the 1974 season. The Dallas Morning News. Hickok Sports. For the 2009 season, there were 34 bowl games, so 68 of the 120 Division I FBS teams were invited to play at a bowl. The Official National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Guide. Retrieved 2006-11-29.

^ “1872 Rutgers Scarlet Knights Schedule and Results”. Rockne returned to coach the team in 1918, and devised the powerful Notre Dame Box offense, based on Warner’s single wing. Echoes of Oklahoma Sooners Football: The Greatest Stories Ever Told. During this streak, Michigan scored 2,831 points while allowing only 40.[35]

Kickoff during the 1916 Colorado – Utah game

The beginnings of the contemporary Southeastern Conference and Atlantic Coast Conference start in 1894. Oklahoma, under coach Bud Wilkinson, won three national titles (1950, 1955, 1956) and all ten Big Eight Conference championships in the decade while building a record 47-game winning streak. Colorado found much success in its early years, winning eight Colorado Football Association Championships (1894-97, 1901-08).

Soccer

Men

Women

On November 23, 1876, representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit House in Springfield, Massachusetts to standardize a new code of rules based on the rugby game first introduced to Harvard by McGill University in 1874. As conferences became contractually bound to certain bowl games (a situation known as a tie-in), match-ups that guaranteed a consensus national champion became increasingly rare. p. 8. The University of Denver and the University of Utah joined the RMAC in 1910. “Sports and Freedom: The Rise of Big-Time College Athletics”, New York: Oxford University Press, 1988

^ Infamous 1874 McGill-Harvard game turns 132 at McGill Athletics, published by McGill University (no further authorship information available). Incidentally, rugby was to make a similar change to its scoring system 10 years later.[16]

Early games

Main article: 1869 college football season

A pass is ruled complete if one of the receiver’s feet is inbounds at the time of the catch. The team went 12-0, outscoring opponents 322 to 10. Louis Post-Dispatch photograph of Brad Robinson, who threw the first legal forward pass and was the sport’s first triple threat

The system continued to change, as the formula for ranking teams was tweaked from year to year. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ a b “The History of Football”. Retrieved June 11, 2011.

^ “NCAA Division I Football Championship”. From 1980 to 2008, an additional 20 bowl games were added to the schedule.[144][145] Some have criticized this growth, claiming that the increased number of games has diluted the significance of playing in a bowl game. Nelson. To Whittemore’s surprise, Camp agreed to coach the team himself, on the condition that he finish the season at Yale first.[63] As a result of Camp’s late arrival, Stanford played just three official games, against San Francisco’s Olympic Club and rival California. If the teams remain tied, overtime periods continue, with a coin flip determining the first possession. open access publication - free to read

^ Gardner (1996)

^ Dupont, Kevin Paul (September 23, 2004). April 27, 1924.

^ Dan McGugin (1907). “Yale’s Walter Camp and 1870s Rugby.” The Journey to Camp: The Origins of American Football to 1889. The Lions traveled from New York City to New Brunswick on November 12, 1870 and were defeated by Rutgers 6 to 3. For other uses, see College football (disambiguation).

“NCAA football” redirects here. November 27, 1941.

^ “Homecoming 2015″. Therefore, college football is generally considered to be the second tier of American football in the United States; one step ahead of high school competition, and one step below professional competition. Heisman Trophy. On 1 January 1902, Yost’s dominating 1901 Michigan Wolverines football team agreed to play a 3-1-2 team from Stanford University in the inaugural “Tournament East-West football game what is now known as the Rose Bowl Game by a score of 49-0 after Stanford captain Ralph Fisher requested to quit with eight minutes remaining.

January 30, 1892 saw the first football game played in the Deep South when the Georgia Bulldogs defeated Mercer 50-0 at Herty Field.

Teams in each of these four divisions are further divided into various regional conferences.

See also

American college football

At the beginning of the first semester in the fall of ’90 the boys rooming at the dormitory on the campus of the U. Also, rules were changed to add the champions of five additional conferences (Conference USA [C-USA], the Mid-American Conference [MAC], the Mountain West Conference [MW], the Sun Belt Conference and the Western Athletic Conference [WAC]), provided that said champion ranked in the top twelve in the final BCS rankings, or was within the top 16 of the BCS rankings and ranked higher than the champion of at least one of the “BCS conferences” (also known as “AQ” conferences, for Automatic Qualifying).[147] Several times since this rule change was implemented, schools from non-AQ conferences have played in BCS bowl games. Camp’s innovations in the area of point scoring influenced rugby union’s move to point scoring in 1890. The effect was to open up the game and emphasize speed over strength. The American retained the Big East’s automatic BCS bowl bid for the 2013 season, but lost this status in the CFP era.

In May 1900, Yost was hired as the football coach at Stanford University,[84] and, after traveling home to West Virginia, he arrived in Palo Alto, California, on August 21, 1900.[85] Yost led the 1900 Stanford team to a 7-2-1, outscoring opponents 154 to 20. The IAAUS would get its current name of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) in 1910,[98] which still sets rules governing the sport.[98][99]

NCAA Division II Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champion at the third highest level of college football from 1973 to present.

NCAA Division III Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champion at the fourth highest level of college football from 1973 to present.

NAIA National Football Championship -playoff for determining the national champions of college football governed by the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics.

NJCAA National Football Championship – playoff for determining the national champions of college football governed by the National Junior College Athletic Association.

CSFL Championship – Champions of the Collegiate Sprint Football League, a weight restricted football sport.

Team maps

Map of NCAA Division II

Track and Field

Men’s indoor and outdoor

Women’s indoor and outdoor

After leaving Yale in 1882, Camp was employed by the New Haven Clock Company until his death in 1925. Atlanta, Ga.: Whitman Publishing, LLC. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ “FBS College Football History”. Atlanta Constitution. Retrieved April 6, 2011.

^ “The History of Homecoming”. Though he lectured on eliminating and reducing injuries, he never threatened to ban football. In 1952, the NCAA claimed all television broadcasting rights for the games of its member institutions, and it alone negotiated television rights. NCAA. Starting with the third overtime, a one-point PAT field goal after a touchdown is no longer allowed, forcing teams to attempt a two-point conversion after a touchdown. This arrangement is contractually locked in until the 2026 season.

On September 27, 1902, Georgetown beat Navy 4 to 0. Dartmouth won 91 to 0.[28]

Following the enormous success of the 1958 NFL Championship Game, college football no longer enjoyed the same popularity as the NFL, at least on a national level. Other important changes, formally adopted in 1910, were the requirements that at least seven offensive players be on the line of scrimmage at the time of the snap, that there be no pushing or pulling, and that interlocking interference (arms linked or hands on belts and uniforms) was not allowed. Six major bowl games (the Rose, Sugar, Cotton, Orange, Peach, and Fiesta) rotate on a three-year cycle as semifinal games, with the winners advancing to the College Football Playoff National Championship. ISBN 1-57167-116-1. The rules committee legalized the forward pass instead. Each year, one of the four bowl games served as a national championship game. Paul Hornung, Notre Dame quarterback, did, however, win the Heisman in 1956, becoming the only player from a losing team ever to do so.[136][137]

games 1930-2010[144]

Year

# of games

1930

1

1940

5

1950

8

1960

8

1970

8

1980

15

1990

19

2000

25

2010

35

2014

College football playoff consist of 2 bowls and a champ game

Softball

Championship

CWS

Harvard vs. The Anatomy of a Game. Playing its first game on November 14 of that year against the Alliance Athletic Club, in which USC gained a 16-0 victory. 100 Years of Golden Gopher Football. “Teddy Roosevelt’s Role in the 1905 Football Controversy”. A selection committee of college football experts decides the participating teams. While both games benefited from the advent of television, since the late 1950s, the NFL has become a nationally popular sport while college football has maintained strong regional ties.[138][139][140]

An 1894 football game in Staunton, Virginia between VMI and Virginia Tech.

Coaching

Main article: Head coach § College football

National championships

College football national championships in NCAA Division I FBS – Overview of systems for determining national champions at the highest level of college football from 1869 to present.

College Football Playoff – 4 team playoff system for determining national champions at the highest level of college football beginning in 2014.

Bowl Championship Series – The primary method of determining the national champion at the highest level of college football from 1998-2013; preceded by the Bowl Alliance (1995-1997) and the Bowl Coalition (1992-1994).

College football expanded greatly during the last two decades of the 19th century. Retrieved 23 December 2015.

^ Greg Roza, Football in the SEC (Southeastern Conference), p. It was his last game as Clemson head coach.[57]

Division II and Division III of the NCAA also participate in their own respective playoffs, crowning national champions at the end of the season. Big Ten Conference – Official Athletic Site – Traditions. MSNBC. The Walter Camp Football Foundation continues to select All-American teams in his honor.[17]

The first intercollegiate game in the state of Vermont happened on November 6, 1886 between Dartmouth and Vermont at Burlington, Vermont. Walter, who would enroll at Yale the next year, was torn between an admiration for Harvard’s style of play and the misery of the Yale defeat, and became determined to avenge Yale’s defeat. TheGame.org. Possessions alternate with each overtime, until one team leads the other at the end of the overtime. Stetson beat Florida Agricultural College at Lake City, one of the four forerunners of the University of Florida, 6-0, in a game played as part of the Jacksonville Fair.[55]

At the Division I FBS level, teams must earn the right to be bowl eligible by winning at least 6 games during the season (teams that play 13 games in a season, which is allowed for Hawaii and any of its home opponents, must win 7 games). p. 52. This allowed the four other BCS bowls to use their normal selection process to select the teams in their games while the top two teams in the BCS rankings would play in the new National Championship Game.

Football

Championship

Canadian football, which parallels American football, is played by collegiate teams in Canada under the auspices of Canadian Interuniversity Sport. Players who became famous for taking advantage of the easier passing game included Alabama end Don Hutson and TCU passer “Slingin” Sammy Baugh.[133]

The 1905 Utah football team

1.6.2 Coaches of the era

1.6.2.1 Glenn “Pop” Warner

1.6.2.2 Knute Rockne

Football teams in Division I are further divided into the Bowl Subdivision (consisting of the largest programs) and the Championship Subdivision. nfl.com. The New York Times. The Southwest Athletic Conference had been founded in 1915. “John Franklin Crowell, Methodism, and the Football Controversy at Trinity College, 1887-1894″ (PDF). The Terrors were a mix of Methodist college students and high schoolers.[58] The Sooners did not manage a single first down. Retrieved 2007-05-31.

^ a b MacCambridge (1999), pp 148

^ Vancil (2000), pp 30

^ Vancil (2000), pp 28-30

^ “A Brief History of the Heisman Trophy”. However, after a few years, the school began to feel the isolation of its newly adopted sport, which was not spreading as many had hoped. 63: 742-750.

^ “History”. Rutgers won by a score of six to four. The game featured the season’s two best defenses and included a goal line stand by Vanderbilt to preserve the tie. “Sewanee, long-lost member of the SEC”.

^ “On the 7th Day They Rested” (PDF).

^ “Grantland Rice”. Georgia Tech, led by Heisman protege William Alexander, gave the dream and wonder team its only loss, and the next year were national and Rose Bowl champions. April 15, 2011. In 1927, his complex shifts led directly to a rule change whereby all offensive players had to stop for a full second before the ball could be snapped. April 16, 2007. The games remained largely unorganized until the 19th century, when intramural games of football began to be played on college campuses. Georgia’s 1927 “dream and wonder team” defeated Yale for the first time. The game features prominently in Vanderbilt’s history.[118] That same year, Alabama upset Penn 9 to 7.[119]

Softball

Championship/WCWS

Volleyball

Men

Women

Pacific Coast

Golf

Men

Women

After the first game against Harvard, Tufts took its squad to Bates College in Lewiston, Maine for the first football game played in Maine.[23] This occurred on November 6, 1875.

[...]

No sport is wholesome in which ungenerous or mean acts which easily escape detection contribute to victory.

Early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional “mob football” played in England. “CHC- Vandy Ties Michigan in 1922″.

^ “Alabama vs. Retrieved October 20, 2011.

^ John C. Retrieved January 14, 2013.

^ Alan Gould (January 24, 1931). p. 14.

^ Southern Inter-Collegiate Athletic Association (PDF). Several major rivalries date from this time period.

Power Five – Five of the six AQ conferences of the BCS era, specifically the ACC, Big Ten, Big 12, Pac-12, and SEC. It was also the first time one team scored over 100 points and the opposing team was shut out.[26] The next week, Princeton outscored Lafayette by 140 to 0.[27]

College Football Playoff

College athletics in the United States

College Football Hall of Fame

College football on radio

College football on television

Helmet stickers

Swimming & Diving

Men

Women

Soccer

Men

Women

The University of Oregon began playing American football in 1894 and played its first game on March 24, 1894, defeating Albany College 44-3 under head coach Cal Young.[77][78][79] Cal Young left after that first game and J.A. Camp’s most famous change, the establishment of the line of scrimmage and the snap from center to quarterback, was also passed in 1880. Lawrence Journal-World. The champions of these six conferences, along with two “at-large” selections, were invited to play in the four bowl games. Rules were simple, violence and injury were common.[3][4] The violence of these mob-style games led to widespread protests and a decision to abandon them. In 1995, the Coalition was replaced by the Bowl Alliance, which reduced the number of bowl games to host a national championship game to three–the Fiesta, Sugar, and Orange Bowls–and the participating conferences to five–the ACC, SEC, Southwest, Big Eight, and Big East. President Theodore Roosevelt reportedly threatened to shut down the game if drastic changes were not made.[94] However, the threat by Roosevelt to eliminate football is disputed by sports historians. The game was essentially soccer with 20-man sides, played on a field 400 by 250 feet. In 1936, the Associated Press began its weekly poll of prominent sports writers, ranking all of the nation’s college football teams. The high school won 24 to 0.[59]

As professional football became a national television phenomenon, college football did as well. open access publication - free to read

^ Patrick Dorsey (September 23, 2011). It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. On November 25, 1911 Kansas and Missouri played the first homecoming football game.[107] The game was “broadcast” play-by-play over telegraph to at least 1,000 fans in Lawrence, Kansas.[108] It ended in a 3-3 tie. open access publication - free to read

^ “Football Squads Begin practice”. Consequently, Stanford is USC’s oldest existing rival.[86] The Big Game between Stanford and Cal on November 11, 1905 was the first played at Stanford Field, with Stanford winning 12-5.[63]

The Athletic Association should now invigorate its base-ball and place it at par with its football team; and it certainly has the material with which to do it. Teams can also go for “the two-point conversion” which is when a team will line up at the three-yard line and try to score. A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear.

With the growth of bowl games, it became difficult to determine a national champion in a fair and equitable manner. Though no longer a player, he remained a fixture at annual rules meetings for most of his life, and he personally selected an annual All-American team every year from 1889 through 1924. The Walter Camp Foundation. That changed with the debut of the four-team College Football Playoff at the end of the 2014 season.

As it grew beyond its regional affiliations in the 1930s, college football garnered increased national attention. 11 (3): 33.

^ Goldsmith, A. MSN Encarta. August 22, 1900. Joseph M. The Yale team was coached and captained by David Schley Schaff, who had learned to play football while attending Rugby school. December 30, 1894. They remained largely “mob” style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area, often by any means necessary. In 2009, Boise State played TCU in the Fiesta Bowl, the first time two schools from non-BCS conferences played each other in a BCS bowl game. The number grew to eleven in 1976. They are then invited to a bowl game based on their conference ranking and the tie-ins that the conference has to each bowl game. Sports Publishing LLC. Princeton won that game by a score of 8 – 0. Thus, only Division I wins (whether FBS, FCS, or FCS non-scholarship) are considered for playoff selection. “1958 Colts remember the ‘Greatest Game’”. The trophy recognizes the nation’s “most outstanding” college football player and has become one of the most coveted awards in all of American sports.[134]

Rise of the South

By 1873, the college students playing football had made significant efforts to standardize their fledgling game. In 1910 Vanderbilt held defending national champion Yale to a scoreless tie.[116]

In 1907 at Champaign, Illinois Chicago and Illinois played in the first game to have a halftime show featuring a marching band.[106] Chicago won 42-6. Outing. Its result was “a great surprise to the sporting world.”[117] Commodore fans celebrated by throwing some 3,000 seat cushions onto the field. Four new bowl games were created: the Orange Bowl, Sugar Bowl, the Sun Bowl in 1935, and the Cotton Bowl in 1937. Consisting mostly of schools from Texas, the conference saw back-to-back national champions with Texas Christian University (TCU) in 1938 and Texas A&M in 1939.[128][129] The Pacific Coast Conference (PCC), a precursor to the Pac-12 Conference (Pac-12), had its own back-to-back champion in the University of Southern California which was awarded the title in 1931 and 1932.[128] The Southeastern Conference (SEC) formed in 1932 and consisted mostly of schools in the Deep South.[130] As in previous decades, the Big Ten continued to dominate in the 1930s and 1940s, with Minnesota winning 5 titles between 1934 and 1941, and Michigan (1933, 1947, and 1948) and Ohio State (1942) also winning titles.[128][131]

The 1950s saw the rise of yet more dynasties and power programs. This game’s violence caused such an outcry that no games at all were played in 1871. ESPN.com. The Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association (SIAA) was founded on December 21, 1894, by Dr. Since there was no national championship game, the final version of the AP poll was used to determine who was crowned the National Champion of college football.[132]

Bronko Nagurski Trophy

Dick Butkus Award

Jim Thorpe Award

Doak Walker Award

Campbell Trophy

Johnny Unitas Golden Arm Award

Home Depot Award

Ray Guy Award

John Mackey Award

On April 9, 1880 at Stoll Field, Transylvania University (then called Kentucky University) beat Centre College by the score of 13¾-0 in what is often considered the first recorded game played in the South.[40] The first game of “scientific football” in the South was the first instance of the Victory Bell rivalry between North Carolina and Duke (then known as Trinity College) held on Thanksgiving Day, 1888, at the North Carolina State Fairgrounds in Raleigh, North Carolina.[41]

Southwest

Contents

College football outside the United States

See also: List of college football games played outside the United States

Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as “football”, played at public schools in England in the mid-19th century. Organized competition in American football also exists at the collegiate level in Mexico (ONEFA), the UK (British Universities American Football League), Japan (Japan American Football Association, Koshien Bowl), and South Korea (Korea American Football Association).

College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities, colleges, and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. On October 12, 1929, Yale lost to Georgia in Sanford Stadium in its first trip to the south. Football came back in 1872, when Columbia played Yale for the first time. Journal of Sport History. “Buff Milestones” (PDF). It was agreed that the No.1 and No.2 ranked teams gave up their prior bowl tie-ins and were guaranteed to meet in the national championship game, which rotated between the three participating bowls. Retrieved 30 May 2012.

^ Edmonston Jr., George. The 1917 team was the first national champion from the South, led by a powerful backfield. In the thirty years from 1950 to 1980, seven bowl games were added to the schedule. Vincent’s College to a 40-0 victory.[61] In 1893, USC joined the Intercollegiate Football Association of Southern California (the forerunner of the SCIAC), which was composed of USC, Occidental College, Throop Polytechnic Institute (Cal Tech), and Chaffey College. Princeton University students played a game called “ballown” as early as 1820. In the NFL the clock does not explicitly stop for a first down.

Overtime was introduced in 1996, eliminating ties. It is recalled memorably with the phrase “… and on the seventh day they rested.”[51][52]Grantland Rice called them “the most durable football team I ever saw.”[53]

Awards

Hall of Champions

Conferences

Ice hockey

Men

Rowing

Women

College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries. The NFL, which previously treated the ball as dead during a conversion attempt–meaning that the attempt ended when the defending team gained possession of the football–adopted the college rule in 2015.

The two-minute warning is not used in college football, except in rare cases where the scoreboard clock has malfunctioned and is not being used.

There is an option to use instant replay review of officiating decisions. 2007. It is claimed by Georgetown authorities as the game with the first ever “roving center” or linebacker when Percy Given stood up, in contrast to the usual tale of Germany Schulz.[56] The first linebacker in the South is often considered to be Frank Juhan.

Field hockey

Championship

Map of NJCAA

Organized intercollegiate football was first played in the state of Florida in 1901.[54] A 7-game series between intramural teams from Stetson and Forbes occurred in 1894. The system still did not include the Big Ten, Pac-10, or the Rose Bowl, and thus still lacked the legitimacy of a true national championship.[145][147] However, one positive side effect is that if there were three teams at the end of the season vying for a national title, but one of them was a Pac-10/Big Ten team bound to the Rose Bowl, then there would be no difficulty in deciding which teams to place in the Bowl Alliance “national championship” bowl; if the Pac-10/Big Ten team won the Rose Bowl and finished with the same record as whichever team won the other bowl game, they could have a share of the national title. Committee Urges Football Playoff”. Mcgill.ca. In 1992, seven conferences and independent Notre Dame formed the Bowl Coalition, which attempted to arrange an annual No.1 versus No.2 matchup based on the final AP poll standings. In 1914, the first roughing-the-passer penalty was implemented. Retrieved 2009-10-11.

“NFL History by Decade: 1911-1920.” National Football League. (In the NFL overtime is decided by a 15-minute sudden-death quarter, and regular season games can still end in a tie if neither team scores. The Bowl Subdivision has historically not used an organized tournament to determine its champion, and instead teams compete in post-season bowl games. Deseret News. p. 15 – via Google books. Harts had left to prospect for gold in the Arctic.[59][60] Organized football was first played in the territory on November 29, 1894 between the Oklahoma City Terrors and Oklahoma City High School. Traditional tie-ins were maintained for schools and bowls not part of the national championship. Parker, decreed that American football was the appropriate athletic activity to train soldiers and rugby union was dropped.[87]

The first college football game in Oklahoma Territory occurred on November 7, 1895 when the ‘Oklahoma City Terrors’ defeated the Oklahoma Sooners 34 to 0. These down-and-distance rules, combined with the establishment of the line of scrimmage, transformed the game from a variation of rugby football into the distinct sport of American football.[16]

Swimming & Diving

Men

Women

NCAA football official site

Composite television schedule of NCAA football games

Statistics

College Football at d1sportsnet.com

College Football at Sports-Reference.com

Stassen College Football, comprehensive college football database

College Football Data Warehouse

Gridiron History

Rules

NCAA Football 2011 and 2012 Rules and Interpretations

Maps

Google Map of Division II Football Programs

Map of FBS Teams and Conferences

and championships

It is thought that the first forward pass in football occurred on October 26, 1895 in a game between Georgia and North Carolina when, out of desperation, the ball was thrown by the North Carolina back Joel Whitaker instead of punted and George Stephens caught the ball.[48] On November 9, 1895 John Heisman executed a hidden ball trick utilizing quarterback Reynolds Tichenor to get Auburn’s only touchdown in a 6 to 9 loss to Vanderbilt. They decided to play with 15 players on each team. The Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a mock figure called “Football Fightum”, for whom they conducted funeral rites. 18, No. Football Immortals. Athletics were banned at the school in May 1892, but when the strict school president, Benjamin Arnold, died, President John Bloss reversed the ban.[82] Bloss’s son William started the first team, on which he served as both coach and quarterback.[83] The team’s first game was an easy 63-0 defeat over the home team, Albany College.

The University of Southern California first fielded an American football team in 1888. Sportswriter Grantland Rice helped popularize the sport with his poetic descriptions of games and colorful nicknames for the game’s biggest players, including Notre Dame’s “Four Horsemen” backfield and Fordham University’s linemen, known as the “Seven Blocks of Granite”.[105]

Columbia University was the third school to field a team. November 22, 1893.

^ a b Migdol, Gary (1997). ISBN 0-9648244-7-7.

^ a b Libby, Brian. The Big East split into two leagues in 2013; the schools that did not play FBS football reorganized as a new non-football Big East Conference, while the FBS member schools that remained in the original structure joined with several new members and became the American Athletic Conference. Pantops Academy November 13, 1887 as the first game in Virginia.

Tennis

Men

Women

The rules committee considered widening the playing field to “open up” the game, but Harvard Stadium (the first large permanent football stadium) had recently been built at great expense; it would be rendered useless by a wider field. Archived from the original on June 24, 2007. In the post-season, if the teams are still tied, teams will play additional overtime periods until either team scores.)

Extra point tries are attempted from the three-yard line. In the Rugby rules of the time, a try only provided the attempt to kick a free goal from the field. Goddard were playing coaches for the first team which was put together by quarterback Arthur Carroll; who in turn volunteered to make the pants for the team and later became a tailor.[61] USC faced its first collegiate opponent the following year in fall 1889, playing St

New gambling record: Betting on outcome of Brexit vote

That surpasses the 40 million pounds placed on the 2012 U.S. The referendum also outmatches the 35 million pounds placed on the 2014 World Cup Final.

Such betting fever is normally associated with major sports events, with people here habitually placing wagers online or in betting shops on everything from horse races to football matches. He was back in the betting shop this week to place additional wagers on behalf of three American friends.

Betfair allows people to place wagers against each other rather than setting odds like the traditional bookmakers. While the polls show this week’s vote is too close to call, bookies like Betfair are giving the “remain” side a 76 percent probability of winning. referendum betting already hit a record for a political event days ago for Betfair, bookmaker BetFred and IG, the largest provider of spread betting services.

“This is a historical event, and I want to take part in it,” said Can Zhao, an investment researcher who last week placed a 135-pound ($198) bet on “remain” at a Ladbrokes betting parlor near London’s Kings Cross train station.

The bookies’ odds have largely been in synch with global financial markets. Betting is his way to get in on the drama because as a foreign citizen from China he will not have a right to vote. But the importance, drama and uncertainty that have surrounded this vote have made it a spectator sport in its own right.

E.U. All Rights Reserved. presidential race, which was its previous record for a political event. It has become increasingly popular, particularly to bet on financial markets.

“This is comfortably the biggest political betting event in history and dwarves both the general election and the Scottish referendum,” says Lewis Davey, spokesman for Paddy Power, referring to the Scottish vote on independence last year.

Betfair, bookmakers Ladbrokes and Paddy Power and the Betting Research Unit at Nottingham Business School all estimate that the total value of bets on the vote placed in Britain will reach, and likely exceed, 100 million pounds.

Betting on political events used to be a niche area in the gambling industry but has become more widespread, particularly in Britain. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. Spread betting, on the other hand, does not provide a simple win or lose outcome, but can provide payoffs based on the accuracy of the bet. The industry is expecting 100 million pounds, or nearly $150 million, to be wagered by the time the result is known in the early hours of Friday.

For Stephen Jones, 55, betting is a form of insurance against disappointment. He intends to vote to leave the E.U., but has placed bets on “remain” to at least get something in case of his side’s defeat.

© 2016 The Associated Press. Polls suggest it is too close to call, while bookies give the “remain” side a higher chance of winning.. vote as of Wednesday and expects a final amount of 50 million pounds. “But my big win is to leave the E.U.”

The betting has also gained the attention of global investors as a gauge of the likelihood of an event’s outcome. That’s particularly true since pollsters have missed badly in measuring sentiment before some of Britain’s most recent votes, the last general election and the Scottish referendum.

Thursday’s vote on whether to leave the European Union, which will have lasting consequences for the country and Europe, is due to break the record as the most bet-upon political event in Britain’s history. That’s reflected in financial markets, where stocks and the British pound are relatively buoyant one day before the big event.

LONDON — As if the stakes were not high enough in Britain’s nail-biting vote this week, people are betting record amounts of money on its outcome.

Betting exchange Betfair says it had taken 45.8 million pounds in wagers on the E.U. Ladbrokes has seen a tenfold increase in recent years.

“If we are going to remain in the E.U., at least I will take compensation,” said Jones, who expects to get 3,000 pounds back in profit in such an event

College Football: Pictures, Videos, Breaking News

This may not be technically wrong, but it’s lame.

Rabbi Jason Miller

Co-founder & COO, FieldLevel, Inc.

John S. 2 Oregon, No. 3 Alabama, No. Let me preface the conversation about college cheerleading with a quick aside about cheerleading in high school.

There will always be those who ignore the wisdom of others, but if more athletes realize the impact of what a 40+ year retirement will look like, they might perk up their ears just a little more.

On November 26th, the nation’s highest-profile pollster — Nate Silver of the New York Times — gave ten teams a better chance of making the inaugural College Football Playoff than the University of Wisconsin.

Jim Wallis

In the end, running up the score with your star players still in the game, in the final seconds of a game that was not longer being contested didn’t even register to Urban Meyer. There are so many aspects to the football experience to enjoy — like the tailgating — that new gadgets have made it fun for everyone.

In this week’s Scheer Intelligence podcast on KCRW, Robert Scheer speaks with former USC football player Anthony Davis about living with the brain injuries Davis sustained during his celebrated career.

Political science professor, LaGrange College in Georgia

It was the waning moments of a damp September fourth quarter, and football, as it often does, had brought out the ugly side of one of its fans. Should they do so?

Without governance reforms that will put the players’ education and safety ahead of the coaches’ and schools’ money-making priorities, the academically elite Division I colleges’ claim to a higher ground is pure hypocrisy.

Being a Harbaugh has given him more intimate exposure to football than most coaches, but it’s what he’s learned in life, not the Harbaugh legacy, that sets Jay apart.

Emeritus Professor of Law, Northwestern; former NU faculty government chair; scholarship & litigation in education & civil right law.

It’s sorta weird. 6 Texas A&M all bit the dust last week.

What this series of events does show is the chasm that sadly still exists in the experiences and therefore perspectives of most white people compared to most people of color.

Christian leader for social change; President and Founder @Sojourners

Even if you aren’t into the game, football fandom isn’t just about what happens on the field anymore. Elson,

John A.

Editor, Truthdig.com; Author, ‘They Know Everything About You’

From a distance, it appears that Jim Harbaugh is a great coach because he is a great father, husband, son and brother, and being a great football coach just naturally follows. Here are the five big questions to keep in mind heading into the 2015 UH Football season.

The best answer to any question

Seth Abramson

Kai Sato

Entrepreneur, Educator, Writer and Technologist – “Rabbi Without Borders”

At all levels of collegiate play, there are five things that all high school prospects should do to improve their chances of getting recruited for a football scholarship

Robert Scheer

Attorney; Assistant Professor, UNH; Poet; Editor, Best American Experimental Writing

While secondary market tickets for the College Football Championship Game are the most expensive for any college game this season, it’s on pace to be the least expensive national championship game by a wide margin.. No. Tures

Quora

The Colorado Buffaloes come into town for a Thursday night showdown to kickoff what could be a make-or-break year for a man beginning his fourth year as head coach of the Rainbow Warriors. When you get in, you have the typical public perception of it being kind of quirky and not that tough, but it’s not like that at all. 4 Oklahoma, and No. Michigan is a perfect fit for him because of who he is, where he is in his life and what he loves.

Last Saturday was somewhat of a day of reckoning within the top ranks of college football, with four of the top six ranked schools in the country going down. In this case, the red-faced rooter was a 30-something dad.

A number of schools are considering firing their longtime successful coaches, in the hopes of getting a more successful one

Other Football Blogs ~ OLBG Betting Blogs

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World Cup 2018 Qualification – Group G

 By bobslay13 in Other Football

World Cup 2018 Qualifying – Europe Group D

 By Micko70 in Other Football

 By undertherobe in Other Football

OLBG ran a series of blogs to cover each group at the Euro 2016 finals, and have chosen a similar venture for the European groups of the 2018 World Cup. Germain made the quarter finals last season. I’ve been tasked with looking at Group A and as well as a look at the six teams involved, this blog will be updated before each matchday to identify any new long term bets and to briefly preview the matches ahead…. 4 September 2016 18:00

1 September 2016 11:18

World Cup 2018 Qualifying – Europe Group A (Updated Sept 3rd)

World Cup 2018 Qualifying Group H Preview

World Cup Russia 2018 – Qualification Group E Preview, Squad Reviews, Head-to-head Stats,

 By bobslay13 in Other Football

31 August 2016 11:14

UEFA Champions League; Where’s The Value Now The Draw Is Complete?

 By davidg3907 in Other Football

26 August 2016 22:26

 By The Market Man in Other Football

2 September 2016 10:50

Underrated Sassuolo no easy ride

I was really surprised at the price on Juventus to beat Sassuolo ranging between 1.

In this blog i am looking at Group G, which consists of the following nations –

Spain, Italy, Albania, Israel, Macedonia & Liechtenstein

Only the top nation will guarantee themselves a place in Russia, the best 8 placed runners up will then play in a 2 legged play off with the winners of those 4 ties also going to Russia…. Remember that although Di Francesco’s side have 3 points the Neroverdi actually won both matches but the Pescara result was overturned to a 3-0 defeat after they fielded an ineligible player. 29 to 1.

Blogs for the other groups can be found here

The first real difference is that there is a mid-session break, for want of a better term, with 4 rounds being played from September to November, before resuming in March…. They only conceded one goal in Group A, a joint record in Champions League history. 33. They also arguably outplayed Real in Madrid despite losing 1-0…. more

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Following on from the success of OLBG’s Euro 2016 blogging assignments, fellow blogger Micko70 came up with the idea of something similar for the European World Cup qualifying campaign which gets underway in the first week of September. In order of the FIFA World Rankings, the teams involved are Poland, Romania, Denmark, Montenegro, Kazakhstan and Armenia…. more

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Find the Market Man’s blog on Group E here…. They also successfully qualified for the group stages of the Europa League beating Red Star Belgrade in the final qualifying round…. This was a very impressive feat considering they were grouped with Real Madrid and Shakhtar Donetsk, both teams who are capable of scoring heavily in Europe. You can find International Tips from the OLBG community here. more

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The 2018 World Cup takes place in Russia but the qualifying starts in September 2016. more

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27 August 2016 14:59

8 September 2016 15:25

World Cup Russia 2018 – Qualification Group E preview, squad reviews, head-to-head stats

This is the World Cup 2018 Group E Qualification blog. more

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 By ibfm23 in Other Football

OLBG have tasked their resident bloggers to assess the chances of each World Cup 2018 qualifying group. OLBG have asked me to blog on Group H which consists of the following teams; Belgium, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Greece, Estonia, Cyprus and Gibraltar. more

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Serie A Gameweek 3 Betting Tips

Champions League; where’s the value after the draw?

Group A

PSG; 16/1 BetStars

Paris St.

There are 9 UEFA qualifying groups for the 2018 World Cup in Russia comprising of a total of 52 teams

Baseball Handicapping Formula – How To Become Great at Baseball Handicapping

You just start analyzing ball games and select your winners. There is no government rating nor is there any real tracking system. This formula must be battle tested. The only way to fully grade a handicappers picks is over the entire season.

The best baseball handicappers in one who thoroughly follows the game, uses a proven system along with all those miscellaneous variables to determine their selections. Don’t confuse being lucky for being good.. Follow the game, use a proven baseball betting formula, there are many available. Baseball handicapping is not all based on skill. Part of being a good handicapper is promoting yourself as one. Baseball season is very long and there are many ups and downs for every team. They must be up to date with all trades, injuries, trends and current statistics. It is better to be lucky than be good, right. Anyone can create a formula and start using it, but it has to be tested. Luck has a lot to do with it. Be consistent with your bets and use proper money management and you will the best baseball handicapper.

I would define the best baseball handicapper a one who is truly knowledgeable on the sports. My feelings on this are not one individual can be giving that title. There is no license or certification required. You might have a nice run for a week, start thinking you have the best system in the world then lose the next 10 games. Then there are the side variable such as weather conditions, disputes among the players sand mental state of the players. For effective baseball handicapping you need to follow a formula. I am a true believe that anyone can be the best baseball handicapper if they so desire. Remember to distinguish the difference between just lucky and picking the right side. A good handicapper will take all this information and plug into their handicapping formula.

The fact is anyone can claim to be good at baseball handicapping. Many get lucky but luck only happens occasional. Let’s make it simple and say that a baseball handicapper is a person that analyzes two baseball teams and attempt to picks the winner.

Now a proven winning formula is mandatory. The only way to test a formula is to use through an entire baseball season. A handicapper that just picks games without close examination is one that I would avoid.

Just what is a baseball handicapper? According to Wikipedia: Baseball Handicapping is the practice of assigning advantage through scoring compensation or other advantage given to different contestants to equalize the chances of winning. That is the easy part just about all handicappers claim to be the best.

Now you are probably reading this article because you want to know who is best

Where are the game-day fans? | Reuters

sports market.

ATTENDANCE SLIDES

“You want your students to attend the games, because they become a fan for life,” said Bob Vecchione, executive director of the National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics.

Fans increasingly want to be connected to the Internet to follow other games and comment on the one they are watching, experts said. The school responded in part this year by upgrading its stadium’s video displays and cellular phone coverage.

“I don’t really understand football unless someone’s making a touchdown,” she said. That’s easier done at home, in a bar or a fraternity house, than in a stadium.

RICH GET RICHER

“We do know that the ability to tweet, Instagram, text – those things were important to people that are attending these games,” said Jeremy Sharpe, an associate athletic director at the University of Arizona in Tucson.

WASHINGTON As the 2014 U.S. The school has now upgraded cellular phone service at Arizona Stadium and enhanced its video screen display, Sharpe said.

Even as the value of television contracts and merchandise sales soars for top teams, university administrators sweat the empty seats, given that ticket sales are still the top revenue generator for college sports.

“You can’t just rely on, ‘We are the University of X, Y and Z and our football team is playing today’ and fill up” stadiums, said Haynes Hendrickson, president of Turnkey Intelligence, a sports marketing firm in Haddonfield, New Jersey.

Ninety-four percent of athletic directors and other college sports professionals polled by Mortenson Construction Co of Minneapolis in 2013 said their stadiums now had WiFi access for fans, or would have it in two or three years. Season ticket sales are up by about 25 percent, and sellouts are expected for games with Ohio State and Michigan State, said Zachary Bolno, a senior associate athletics director.

They are turning to cash prizes, better Internet access in stadiums, improved scoreboards and fan focus groups as they fight to cling on to their share of an increasingly saturated U.S. Per-game attendance in the NCAA’s Division I, which groups the biggest schools, fell to 28,427 last season, down 3.5 percent from 2008.

By Ian Simpson

| WASHINGTON

“It’s just going to be much, much more difficult for any of the bottom-tier schools to rise up and be competitive,” he said. “It’s like, ‘Okay, we won, I could have read that online after the game.’”.

Attendance got a boost in 2014 following Maryland’s switch to the Big 10 from the Atlantic Coast Conference. This year, students who stayed to the end of the first game, a 58-13 win over University of Nevada-Los Vegas, were eligible to win a flat-screen TV, Sharpe said.

Attendance at Arizona games has fallen 9 percent from 2008, even as the Wildcats posted a winning record over those six seasons. “What’s happened is that students and alums who traditionally have been the fans aren’t interested in losing teams.”

Falling attendance among students is a special warning sign for college football since undergraduates who skip games are unlikely to become season-ticket holders after they graduate, experts said.

For Division I’s powerhouse Football Bowl Subdivision, whose 127 schools enjoy billions of dollars in long-term television contracts, attendance dropped to 45,192 per game last year, a decline of almost 3 percent over six seasons.

Dwindling attendance is inevitable as winning programs get more ticket and television money, and weaker schools fall further behind, said Andrew Zimbalist, a sports economist at Smith College in Northampton, Massachusetts.

(Additional reporting by Annika McGinnis in College Park, Maryland; Editing by Scott Malone and Bernadette Baum)

But for Maryland student Francoise Douala, 20, of Baltimore, football games are take-it-or-leave-it social events.

Those polled estimated that 35 percent of fans at football or basketball games followed the game on their smartphones, and expected that percentage to double in three years.

In 2013, Arizona gave out cash prizes to students in its rooting section who stayed for entire games.

Figures from the National Collegiate Athletic Association, which oversees college sports, show the number of fans going to games has been sliding for several years. college football season kicks off, athletic departments face one big worry – that fans of one of the nation’s most popular sports are watching it from sofas or bars, rather than filling stadiums.

At the University of Maryland, game-day attendance sagged 14 percent last year from 2008 as the Terrapins posted an overall losing record

Football betting – how to win regularly

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Rachel Fox Earns Spot on Seventeen Magazine’s Power Teens List as Day-Trading Actress

“Just let the enthusiasm take you ’cause that’s what I did and I was like …

“I have a couple different strategies,” she said. how they IPO on the stock exchange. ‘There’s no females in this industry or this world, but I’m gonna do it anyway.’”

So Fox began trading with her own money that she made from acting. I had this understanding and know-how. you can often take that information and kind of, arbitrage it before Wall Street [knows about it]. “And … In her very first year of day-trading, Fox’s returns beat the S&P 500.. So, being a young investor, actually, has huge advantages and nobody even knows about that because pop culture and, you know, all the things that influences certain companies to do very well, is right at your fingertips.”

Fox writes about all that she’s learned on her blog, “Fox on Stocks,” with the hope of helping others improve their financial literacy.

“When I was 16 I was like, I understand a lot about, you know, companies,” the “Desperate Housewives” actress told “Good Morning America” co-anchor Amy Robach. If you’re curious about something, just let that drive you and just go with it,” Fox said. I had the skill of managing money….”

When Rachel Fox is not appearing on TV and in movies, the 19-year-old is keeping busy as a stock day trader at her computer — a skill that’s earned her a spot on Seventeen magazine’s Power Teens list.

“… With other investments, I will definitely pay attention to what’s going on in pop culture a lot … “..

A Beginners Guide to Navigating the Casino Without Losing Your Shirt

Some machines let you choose the value of a credit, such as 25 cents, 50 cents, $1 or $2. The goal is to beat the dealer. In some games, all the players on a group, or “bank” of machines might share in a bonus round. Slot players put their cards into the machine; table game players present their cards to the dealer.

Finding yourself amid the thousands of games, dealing with the noise, lights and other casino distractions, and ogling the vast amounts of money and chips can intimidate anyone.. The number combination generated at the instant you hit the spin button determines what symbols will be displayed and whether you win or lose.

If you find yourself ahead after a couple of hours of fun, then remember the dealer’s advice for the nervous blackjack player: Run for the hills!

One of the built-in advantages for a player is that blackjacks traditionally pay 3-to-2, or $15 for a $10 bet. Some want a four-star restaurant and a live musical.

The black-haired woman nervously thumbed through her purse as she took the end seat at the blackjack table. Use your players club card whenever you gamble there. With slots, the outcome is determined by a computer program called a random number generator, or RNG. That can range from a penny to several hundred dollars. At that game, the player with a blackjack gets paid only $12 for a $10 bet. Although each credit is worth only one cent, players can wager as much as $3 a spin by playing multiple pay lines and more than one credit per line.

Many people making their first casino trip or trying out a new game are like that uneasy blackjack player. Many are tied to popular movies, TV shows or musical artists – think “Lord of the Rings” or “Pawn Stars” or Dolly Parton – or even games such as Wheel of Fortune, Monopoly and Battleship.  

Slot machines are the easiest and most popular form of casino gambling. Dollar machines pay out more than quarter machines, and quarter machines pay out more than nickel machines.

Whether you’re a beginner or a veteran, the most important fact about a casino is this: The house always has the edge, no matter what game you play. About 27 percent of Americans visit a casino at least once a year, according to the American Gaming Association, and that number grows as legalized gambling continues to expand beyond the traditional centers of Las Vegas and Atlantic City. A few favorites: www.WizardOfOdds.com, www.bj21.com, www.BJInsider.com, and authors Stanford Wong, Henry Tamburin and Arnold Snyder.

Slot machines appeal to people looking for a pressure-free way to pass the time. Blackjack, if you take a few minutes to learn the basic strategy of when to hit or stand.

Video Poker, if you make the effort to look for good pay tables and learn simple guidelines for which cards to keep and throw away.

Baccarat, including the “mini” form found on the main casino form.

Craps, a game that looks more complicated than it actually is.

READ: 6 Mistakes to Avoid When Paying Off Debt

Many books and Web sites teach basic strategy for blackjack. If you go out for dinner and a show, you know how much that’s worth to you. Sure, some players will win big. Many players mistakenly think the object of blackjack is to get a hand as close as possible to a total of 21 without going over. The machine itself is the entertainment. You could hit a big jackpot or you could lose your buy-in within a few minutes.

Regardless of what you might hear elsewhere, there is no strategy for winning at a slot machine. “Run! Run for the hills while you’re ahead!”

When you enter any casino for the first time, head to the players club booth and join. Those who follow basic strategy can reduce the house edge to 0.5 percent or less, making it the closest thing to an even-money game the casino offers. The answer depends on your own assessment of how much you’re willing to spend for a night at a casino. She put out the $10 minimum bet and was dealt a two-card 20 for her first hand. In other words, for every $100 put into machines throughout the casino, the machines return an average of about $90 over the long run. She pulled out three $20 bills and gingerly placed them on the felt, confessing to the dealer this was her first time playing the game.

Just bear in mind that you’re there to have fun. A cynical adage holds that casino executives figure that whatever you bring through the door is theirs – you just happen to be holding it for the moment. Slot players don’t have to worry about making the “right play” or doing something that could affect other gamblers. They want to gamble but they’re not exactly sure what to do.

READ: The Downsides of Winning a Powerball Jackpot

However, that doesn’t mean you should just throw your money away on long shots. Casinos make more money from slots than from any other game. So if the dealer’s up-card is weak — especially a Four, Five or Six — it’s better for a player to stand on a “stiff” hand of 12 through 16 than trying to hit and get closer to 21.

The house advantage on slots can vary by casino, but typically it’s about 10 percent. Never play them. Over the long run, the casino will win because of how the games are structured.

Blackjack is the most popular card game by far. Casinos have evolved into one of the country’s premiere entertainment options. The vast majority won’t. In the short run, anything can happen. Those include Three Card Poker, Let It Ride Blackjack Switch and Spanish 21. Players have the option of hitting or standing, while the dealer must follow specific rules — generally, he must hit if the total is 16 or less and stand with a total of 17 through 21. Smart gamblers find a game they enjoy and learn the strategies that reduce the house edge as much as possible.

The challenge for bettors is to find a game that they enjoy and that has a house edge they’re comfortable with. Never bet with money you need for the mortgage or medical bills. Some casinos offer games that pay 6-to-5 for a blackjack. Some games have surround-sound chairs for what manufacturers call “immersion” gaming.

Before you put money into a slot, check the machine’s display to see how much one credit is worth. Since blackjacks will come at the same rate at each type of game — once in about every 21 hands — playing at 6-to-5 table costs you about $6 an hour.

READ: Tips and Tricks for Traveling to Las Vegas

One question all casino visitors ask themselves is how much money to take. Take what you are comfortable spending. If you “bust” by going over 21, you lose even when the dealer also busts, because the dealer is the last to act. A rule of thumb is that the higher the base denomination, the less the house advantage. Some folks are comfortable eating at a chain restaurant and catching a matinee. This was a friendly table, he said, and he or the other players would be happy to help a novice. It’s all pure luck, as opposed to skill games such as blackjack and poker. Each number corresponds to a specific symbol on the display. Slot manufacturers spend millions of dollars to make machines that entice people play longer. That’s not right. The card makes you eligible for offers of discounted or free food, hotel rooms or other amenities based on the amount of your play. The casino gets its cut by collecting a “rake,” typically $4 or $5, out of every pot.

Casinos also offer a variety of “carnival games” that are variations of poker and blackjack. As a rule of thumb, the easier a game is to play, the higher the house edge.

“No problem,” he assured her. The process is simple: Push a button; win or lose; repeat. You should be mentally prepared to lose it all.

Casinos offer a variety of games to entice everyone from those dreaming of a life-changing jackpot to people simply enjoying a night out.

“You know what you should do now?” the dealer asked, barely suppressing a smile as he prepared to deliver the punch line. They’re generally easy to learn and play.

When you plan a casino trip, figure out how much you’re willing to spend for that night’s entertainment. The RNG’s sole function is to spit out groups of numbers. Slots can account for 70 percent or more of the money casinos make from gambling.

Games with a low house edge include:        

A penny machine is a misnomer. Her blackjack fling started with a victory.

Poker is popular, but it differs from all other games because you play against other gamblers rather than against the house